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TH€ B6LOGRRDCHIK JOURNRL FOR LOCRL HISTORV, 
CULTURRL H6RITRG6 RND FOLK STUDI6S 



BEHEI4 

BejiorpaflHMiuKO cnncaHne 
3a MCTopua, Kymypa m 
Hapofl03HaHne 



Volume 1 , Number 3, 201 




Sofia, Bulgaria 



BEHEIJ 

BEJIOrPAflHHUIKO CnHCAHHE 

3A HCTOPHU, KYJITYPA H 

HAPOfl03HAHHE 

VENETS 

THE BELOGRADCHIK JOURNAL 

FOR LOCAL HISTORY, CULTURAL 

HERITAGE AND FOLK STUDIES 



IIpo(|). B.B. Touiee, 

zjiaeen pedatcmop 

B. TouieB 

,3,-p PyMHHa Bjia/iOBa 



Prof. Dr. B.V. Toshev, 

Editor-in-Chief 

MSc V. Toshev, Managing Editor 

Dr. R. Vladova, Reviews Editor 



PedaKUfUonna Konezun: 

Dlpocb. BecejiHH EopiicoB 
BajieHTHH Kanee 

,3,-p DleTKO XpHCTOB 

,3,-p KnpHJi IlaHOB 

^auMCJia Bo>KKOBa 

Dlpocb. HopAaH Ta6oB 



Editorial Board: 

Prof. Dr. Veselin Borisov 

(Social Medicine) 

MA Valentin Kachev 

{Belles Lettres) 

Dr. Petko Hristov {Rural Studies) 

Dr. Kiril Panov {Astronomy) 

BA Daniela Bozhkova (Ethnology) 

Prof. Dr. Jordan Tabov 

(Historical Cartography) 



TOM I / VOLUME 1 

KHHTA 3 / NUMBER 3 

2010 



Any number of the journal contains three main sections: (i) Literary Section (in 

Bulgarian), (ii) Historical Archives (chiefly in Bulgarian) and (iii) Scientific Section 

(usually in English with research papers in the fields of Local/Family History, Oral 

History, Heritage Studies, Rural Studies, Memory Studies, etc.) 

GUIDE FOR AUTHORS 

Contributors from all over the world are encouraged to send manuscripts in the 

above mentioned areas that should be written in a readable and scholarly manner. 

Manuscripts (in English or in Bulgarian) should not exceed 20 standard pages in 

length including illustrations, tables, figures and references. Articles must be 

accompanied by a summary of size not exceeding 20 lines. 

Style should conform to that of the Publication Manual of the American 
Psychological Association (APA). 

The electronic submission of the manuscript (in word format) is preferable. 

Available E-Mails: 

bvtoshevfSjabv.bg 

toshev(S),chem.uni-so fia.bg 



2010 Venets 



Published Triannually 

by SCS CONSULTING Ltd, Sofia (BULGARIA) 

in Collaboration with the Belogradchik Society for Local History and Folk Studies 



258 



CBfltPECAHHE / CONTENTS 



Literary Section (1): 

EceH, 3nMa (H36paHH CTHxoTBopeHHa ot cnncaHHe „BeHeu,") [Autumn, 

Winter (Selected Poems from Venets)] / 261 

ff, EojfCKoea/D. Bozhkova 

Oral History: 

XpncTO Koctob (1930-1982) [Hristo Kostov (1930-1982)] / 273 

E.B. Toiuee/B.V. Toshev 

KannTaHHTe Ha HeSeTO - pa3Ka3 [Skippers of the Sky: A Story] / 279 
B. Kauee/V. Kachev 

Archive Section (1): 

5Khbko h HeBeHa (JlnpHnecKa noeMa) [Zhivko and Nevena: A Poem (1916)] / 

286 

M. rouee/M. Gotchev 

Research Section (I): 

HcTopnicbT A-p TaHHO IleHOB ot ceno BoHHHiia [The Historian Dr. Gantcho 

Tzenoff from the Village of Boynitsa] / 314 

A. Mowee/A. Moshev 



259 



Traditional Marriage Ceremonies among the Ibibio People of Nigeria: A 
Study of Theatrics/ 330 
Bassey Ubong 

KbM B-bnpoca 3a peajiHHre (reorpa(J3CKH) h BtoSpaacaeMHTe (jiereHflapHO- 
mhthhhh) oSeKTH, cfaBMecTeHH BtB BceneHaTa Ha #yxa [The Amalgam of 
Real (Geographical) and Unreal (Tale-Mythical) Objects in the University of 
Spirit] / 347 
R CuMeoHoea/G. Simeonova 

Literary Section (2): 
CTHxoTBopeHHJi [Poems] / 388 
B. Kauee/V. Kachev 

Research Section (2): 

^Be MHCTepH03HH (jroTorpacbiiH ot EejiorpaflHHK [Two Mysterious 

Photographs of Belogradchik] / 393 

E.B. Toiuee/B.V. Toshev 

Appendix: 

EejiorpaflHHK b H3KycTBOTO (Biropen M-bp^acHHaH) [Belogradchik in Art 

(Viorel Marginean] / 400 



260 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal for Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume 1, Number 3, 2010 



Literary Section 



ECEH, 3HMA 

(H3BPAHH CTHXOTBOPEHIM OT 

CnHCAHHE „BEHEIH 1} 



flamiejia ECXflCKOBA 



Abstract. This is a selection of poems published during the years in 
the journal "Venets". The admiration to the Bulgarian autumn and winter is 
their basic clue. 

Keywords: poem, autumn, winter, Venets 



ECEHHA IIECEH 2) 



Thxo SaraT no 3eMjrra 

CeTHH CJTbHHeBH 3apH. 

CSoroM ! - MHJiBaT Te u,BeTaTa - 
xaii - /jo xySaBH 3opn! .. 

CSoroM! - myniHaT nBenmaTa. - 
Vrpe, a? .. J\o cpenia naK! .. 
H HaBeac^aT en nejinaTa 
npe# npojia3HJina MpaK. 

261 



H ctHyBaT Te, SnaraTKH: 
nenepy^OBH Kpiuma, 

TOITbJI JltH ... MHJiyBKH CJiaflKH 

no ajiGacTpeHH nejiua. .. 

A HomTa CTy/ieHa, jie#Ha, - 
TptrmaT fltxaBH u,BeTa ... 

jitH - uejiyBHHua noaneAHa 
Ha/i cnaHaTa 3aTpenTa ... 




K1>M ior 3) 

OTJiHTaT Bene Hanurre neBipi: 
Ha CBeTJiH lor BJiene m nponeTTa; 
OTJiHTaT cjia/iKonoHHHTe ropuH - 
b neca caMOTeH CTHXBa neceHTa. 



262 



H rne/iaM as poaicbT KaK ce pen 

H3 MO^pHTe HeSeCHH BHCHHH, 

a yrpe Bene cjitHije me ro rpeM 
uaji orneAaJiHH mopckh niHpHHH. 



II. IleTpoB 




ECEH 



4) 



Hh3 nona h ratxHajiH aojihhh 
thxomi>jikom na3H eceHTa; 

naK 3acTHJiar flBopn h rpaflHHH 
actJiTHTe, OKananH jiHCTa. 



263 



BjianaT ce KaTO errata jichmbo 

HenporjieflHH, cHHKaBH Mbrim; 

ot HeSeTO cxnyneHO h chbo 

HenpecTaHHO at>>ka Bann, BanH ... 



Bt>b ropaTa Tb>KHa, 3anycTjma 
HaMa neceH, hhto rjibH, hh 3ByK: 

Hma aTO Ben He OTJieraiio 
kt>m flajieneH, io>mto Tontu lor. 

BaTtptT Ty njiane, Ty 3acBHpn, 

Ty H H3 ITbTJI CaM-CaMHH TbpHH, 

a OTBt/i, 3a/i ronHTe Sanpn, 
racHaT thxo ceTHHTe jn>HH. 

ria/ia MpaK, h BpaHH Her/ie rpanaT, 

H TJiaCbT HM CTHXBa BBB HOIHTa. 

ho flanH 3a jijitoto Te nuanaT, 
hjih hbk nocpemaT eceHTa? 



CJIl>HIJETO E }KHB0 6) 

JIhct no jihct ropaTa CKptSHa pohh. . . 
Oronaxa khthhtc h kjiohh. 

OTJieTaxa nTHHKHTe h noHHH, 
OHeMaxa BapuieTe h ctpohhh. 



H.H. ByjieB 



5) 



264 



A b nojiaTa, MpaHHH h ci>pflHTH, 
SpoA^T BeTpoBeTe h Mbrjinre. .. 

Oii bh Ba3H, HinpHarH noneTa, 
oii Te Te6e, ropo ne HaneTa! 

He CK-bpSeTe, ne bh BHxpn SpynaT, 
ne MtrjiHTe cjrbHijeTO bh TyjiaT. 

CjitHLi,eTO e ome >khbo, >khbo - 
TaM b HeGeTO MpanHO, MtJinajiKBO. 

To me rpeiiHe naK ot bhchhhtc, 
me CTonn CKp-bSTa bh h MbrjiHTe. 



H naji cennma, nona, GajiKami 
naK 3acM3Ha nponeT me HacTaHe. 



XpncTO Pa/ieBCKH 



7) 




265 



EJIA!... 8) 

Ex, BcaKa 3apaH jxaraM m nep/ieTO, 

HaBtH norjieac^aM - HMa h cera! - 

IlaK acHO-CHHbo TpenHano HeSeTo: 

HanycTO HHe naicaMe CHera! 

C Ttra OT/iaBHa hthhkh OTJieTaxa 

h jihct e^Ba jih HeM/ie e ocTan; 

OT/iaBHa BpaHH chjh hh npeflBemaxa - 

eflHH Bor 3Hae, #e e okt>chjlh ! 

Topn 6e3 jihcth, 6e3 TpeBa noneTO - 

^Khbotbt caKani, rpo3HO OTJieTa, 

6e3 necHH eTO - rjrbXHano HeSeTO, 

3eMa 6e3 hthhkh, jihcth h iiBeia! ... 

A CHar He H^e! - TocnoA hh 3a6paBn! 
3i>pHaTa me HaHOBO noia>jiHaT; 
a Hamn 3hmhh npnKa3KH, 3a6aBH? - 

HieHHHTe Ome B 3HMHHKa cto»t ! 

3amo ce SaBHiu? - HaicaMe Te Bene: 

ne npa3HHu,HTe c TBoara meinia 
nBTyBaT caMO - fltJiro, OT^aneHe... 
^HMHTpoB-AeH He 3Haeni jih ne MHHa? 



266 



Ex, BcaKa 3apaH ^HraM a3 nepAeTO 

HaBtH norjieac/iaM - Hmia h cera... 

H MHCJia ch etc pa,zjocT Ha cbpueTO - 

KaKTHxo, SaBHO CTenH ce CHera... 

A TaM 3bt>huh He flptHKaT mh ce CTpyBa, 

nieiiHaTa 6"bp30 hoch ce Hanpe^; 

ropHaK Hoca nomHiiBa h Ha/iyBa; 

fltpBeTa, xpacTe - 6jlho e HaBpefl.... 

A eM b flona cenoTO ce cbrjieayja: 

cecTpHHKaTa mh naica Bene TaM, - 

HenyBa Me, noflCKana h norjieac^a 

b p-bu,eTe mh - KaKBO jih me H #aM.... 

H neHKaTa, h KOTKaTa ^o Hea... 

EM, ^aiiTe nail ! - CTy/ieHO e HaBtH. 

riperpBiHaM rn, h miana h ce CMea... 

H - cenBaM ce... Ax, ny/ieH, cjia^bK cbh! ... 

H, c kjx b AyinaTa, flptiiBaM naK nep/ieTO, 

HaBtH norjieac/iaM: Hma h cera! - 

naK acHO-CHHbo TpenHano HeSeTO. - 

IU,e floiiflem Rll HaM-cerae h Kora? ... 



M. Teo(J)HJiOB 



9) 



267 



3HMHO yTPO 10) 

TOJIH KJIOHH. BaTtp TOHH 

npecnn H3 noneTo; 

CIMT CH BCHHKH - Cajl 3Be3flHHKH 

TpenicaT no HeSeTO... 

Ho h Te jih 3aTpenTejiH 
caicam ot yMopa. 

Mpa3 H KbpBH... IleTJIH ntpBH 

eKHaxa no flBopa... 

En KOBana - nyic noflCKana, 

yTpo He flonaica! 

Mpa3 HaBaBa - rntH BpaBa 

eKHa no coKaKa: - 

Chmhahhh, canennnn; 

Kyne Hen^e Jiae. . . 

A cface/ia no roBe/ia 

KaniJia n pyrae. 

,H,o6po yrpo ! - ,H,o6po yrpo ! 
XapeH rqh me ma... 
Ex He to e, ho 3Jiaro e 
xySaBaTa 3HMa. 



268 



H TpeBHTe h xpaHHTe - 

KHiiHa-maT Sep'KeTH; 

caMO 3jiototo npe3 jihtoto 

j\& hh He cnojieTn! ... 

Bor e c Ha3H. - Bhh, xaHJia3H! 

cjibHLte me hh CHaii^e - 

Ha, H3Tene, a ^ajien e, 

nx>T hh naica - xan^e!... 



A 3&j\ xneBa Ben rorpaBa 

CJiBHue 3JiaTorjiaBO... 

Ex, Sep'KeTH - Heica cbcth! 

xapHO BpeMe - npaBO ! 



M. Teo(|)HJiOB 



9) 




269 



IIECEHTA HA TAPBAHA 11 ' 

Ta!... ne croir noKpnn nonaTa, 
ne CKOBaHH ca bt>b jiqr 

h peKHTe h SnaTaTa, 

ne yMpan e 6o>khh CBeT, 

u,aji 3apHHaT no/i CHera - 

ropAO B/iHraM ch rnaBara: 

AHec ctM uapa Ha ropaTa! - 

Ta-ra-ra!... 

JleTHH nTHHKH OTJieTJixa; 

crorr OT/iaBHa b 3HMeH ct>h 

Mhhikh, eacoBe - yMpaxa 

flpyrH b CTyA h rna/i HaBtH, 

HenpHBHKJiH Ha CHera. . . 

CaMO a3 e/iHH 6e3 CTpaxa, - 

b necHH 6oppn 6e3 ynnaxa - 

Ta-ra-ra! ... 

Moa norneA c ninpHHeTO 

TtpcH pa/iocT h npHBeT: 

a3 - eflHHHtK Ha noneTO, 

OKOBaHO b cKpeac h jiefl, 

TeacKO rjitxHano b CHera... 

A3 e/iHH nofl HeSecaTa, 

Hap-neBeu, cbm Ha 3eM»Ta... 

Ta-ra-ra!... 



M. Teo(J3HJiOB 9) 
270 














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^*TiJ^^^ -~ s» 




B^J0 m ^ mmmm , 




^w. 



271 



EEJIE)KKH 

I. Bchhkh chhmkh b Ta3H no/jGopica ot CTHxoTBopeHHa ca HanpaBeHH OT 
r-»ca KnHKa MnxafljiOBa, ypeaHHK b HcropHHecKJia My3efi b EejiorpaaHHK. 

2.SeHeyl,26(1911). 
3.BeHei{l, 110(1911). 

4. Betteif 15, 98 (1937). 

5. Hjina Hhkojiob EyjieB (19.1 1.1883 - 16.04.1966); mnan e KHHra „HjiHa P. 
EjTbCKOB" (1934 r.). 

6. Beueu 15, 73 (1937). 

7. Xphcto BacHJieB PafleBCKH (10.10.1903 - 14.02.1996). 
S.BeHetfl, 161-162(1911). 

9. Mnxanji EloncaBOB Teo(})HJiOB, ny6jiHKyBan Meac^y 1901 h 1943, flHec 
3a6paBeH; Hanncaji e Gnorpaijma Ha XpncTO Eotcb (1926), npertpnajia Tpn 

H3J],aHHfl. 

10. Beueij 1, 469-470 (1912). 

II. Beueii 1,393(1911). 



M Ms. Daniela Bozhkova, BA 

SCS Consulting Ltd. 

16 Sider Grantcharov Str., 1359 Sofia 

E-Mail: dnl bozhkova@yahoo.com 



272 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal for Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume I, Number 3, 2010 



Oral History 



45 rO^HHH ACTPOHOMHHECKA OECEPBATOPH3 B 
EEJIOEPAflHHK (1965 - 2010) 



XPHCTO KOCTOB (1932-1982) 



i) 



B. B. TOUIEB 



Abstract. This is an unpublished manuscript written in 1982 in 
memoriam of Hristo Kostov (d. November, 2 nd , 1982), f. assistant professor at 
the University of Sofia. Hristo Kostov was a specialist in didactics of physics. 
He was known as one of the most successful physics teachers in Bulgaria. The 
building of the astronomical observatory in Belogradchik was his idea. 

Keywords: Hristo Kostov, didactics of physics, Belogradchik, 
observatory 



Ha 2 HoeMBpu 1982 r. BHe3anHO nonuHa HauiHjrr cbrpaac^aHHH h 
BH/ieH HJieH Ha SturapcicaTa (bu3HHecKa KOJierua XpucTO Koctob. CMtprra 
ro 3aBapu KaTO rnaBeH acucTeHT b KaTe/rpaTa no MeTOflHKa Ha oSyneHHeTO 
no (bH3HKa Ha Co(])hhckhji yHHBepcHTeT „[Cb.] KjiHMeHT Oxpn/iCKH", rnaBeH 
peflaKTop Ha HayHHO-MeTOflHHHOTO cnncaHHe „<l>H3HKa", opraH Ha 
MnHHCTepcTBOTO Ha Hapo/maTa npocBeia, HJieH Ha HeHrpajiHOTO 



273 



ptKOBOflCTBO Ha ^pyacecTBOTO Ha (|)H3HLi,HTe b EtJirapna. OcTaHa 
He3auiHTeHa e#Ha npenn3HO HanncaHa flHcepTanna, nocBeTeHa Ha 
H3noji3BaHeTO Ha ejieKTpoHHH npnGopn b yneGHna eKcnepHMeHT no chronica b 
cpeflHOTO yHHJiHme, oSoSmaBama ^BJiroroflHinHHa onHT Ha aBTopa n b e^Ha 
oSjiacT Ha <J)H3HHecKHa eKcnepHMeHT, b kojito toh Seme nnoHep c 
nocTHaceHHa, ninpoKO nnTHpaHH h H3noji3BaHH He caivto y Hac, ho h b 
Hyac/iaTa HaynHa jiHTepaTypa. HanHHHeTO Ha nnTaTH b CBeTOBHaTa 
jiHTepaTypa 3acjiyacaBa cnennanHO OT6ejia3BaHe, Ttii KaTO H3CJieflBaHHjrra b 
oSjiacTTa Ha o6pa30BaHHeTO oGhkhobcho HMaT HanHOHajmo 3HaneHne h 
pujiKO npeAH3BHKBaT HHTepec bbh ot rpamiHHTe Ha CTpaHaTa, ocoSeHO aico 
Ta e MajiKa. H,eHHO HaaneflCTBO ca noBene ot 100 HayHHO-MeTOAHHHH h 
HayHHO-nonynapHH CTaTHH. Ome XpncTO Koctob 6e cbaBTop Ha hjikojiko 
yneSHHKa no (|)H3HKa 3a Eahhhoto cpe#HO nojiHTexmiHecKO yHHJiHine n Ha 
peflnua p-bKOBO^CTBa 3a ynHTenn, kohto HaMepHxa ^oStp npneivi n cera ca 
HacTOJiHH KHHrn 3a HamnTe (J)H3hli,h - npenoflaBaTejin b cpeflHOTO ynHJiHine. 




XnMHHecKHaT (JDaicyjiTeT Ha Co(J)HHCKHa yHHBepcnTeT 



2) 



274 




CTapaTa Sejiorpa^HHinKa rHMHa3Ha 3) 
XpncTO Koctob 3anoHHa CBOjrra mioflOTBopHa aghhoct b 
Bejiorpa/iHHK. Ha cpe^HOTO h no-Bi^pacTHO noKOJieHHe Sejiorpa^HHiuKH 
rpaac/jaHH e #o6pe H3BecTHO HeroBOTO nocjiOBHHHO Tpy^ojnoSHe h 
6e3rpaHHneH eHrycHaBtM. Te3H KanecTBa, kohto toh 3ana3H ^o Kpaa Ha 
acHBOTa ch, My no3BOJiHxa 3a KpaTKO BpeMe j\a Cb3fla/ie OTJiHHeH KaSHHer no 
(j)H3HKa b Sejiorpa/iHHniKaTa rHMHa3Ha h rsi nocTHrae e#HO 3aBH#HO hhbo Ha 
npeno/iaBaHe no (J3H3HKa h acrpoHOMHJi. HeroBHTe yponn 6axa hcthhckh 
npa3HHu,H 3a yneHHUHTe My h MHoro CKopo HeroBOTO HMe CTaHa ^o6pe 
H3BecTHO b CTpaHaTa. CnpaBeAJiHBO e #a ce OTSeneacn, ne no TOBa BpeMe 
HMame noflxofljnnn ycnoBna 3a TaKOBa pa3BHTHe. B rHMHa3Hjrra paSoTeme 
cnnoTeH h aM6Hu,H03eH yHnrejiCKH kojickthb, a b oSnacTTa Ha 
npnpoAOMaTeMaTHHecKHTe HayKH, kohto cera ca oSeier Ha HameTO 



275 



BHHMamie, 6axa nocTHrHaTH 3a6ejieacHTejiHH pe3yjiTaTH He caMO no chronica 
h aerpoHOMHa, ho h no xhmm (Po3a KeHepjiH/pKH (ToMOBa)) h MaTeMaTHKa 
(AHren IlacKajieB). 

XpncTO Koctob HMa rojiaivta 3acjiyra b cb3flaBaHeTO Ha 
acTpoHOMHHecKaTa oScepBaTopna b rpa/ja. BceKH, kohto ce e onHTBan j\& 
peajiH3npa e^Ha HOBa H/iea, ^o6pe 3Hae KaKBH Tpy/iHOCTH ot HaH-pa3JiHHHO 
ecTecTBO TpaSBa jxa St^aT npeoflOJuiHH, 3a #a ce nonyHH acenaHHa pe3yjrraT. 
^Hec acTpoHOMHHecKaTa oScepBaTopna, nofl pt>koboactboto Ha h.c. k.(J).h. 
AjieKcaHfltp Tomob 4) (Tomob, 1999), e (J3HJiHa.ii Ha HannoHajmaTa 
acTpoHOMHHecKa oGcepBaTopna Ha BAH n e ropflOCT 3a EejiorpaflHHK [3a 
oScepBaTopnaTa b>k. Ahtob (1998)]. 




AcTpoHOMHHecKaTa oScepBaTopna b Eejiorpa^HHic 



TpyflHO e #a ce H3pa3H oSaaHneTO, KoeTO npnTeacaBanie XpncTO 
Koctob h H3pa3»Bamo ce b HeroBaTa paSoTa, BHHarn CBHeTaBama 
TporaTejiHHa ewrycum'bM c HenoAKynHaTa B3ncKaTejiHOCT h flHcn.Hn.nHHa. 



276 



floSpe H3BecTHa e HeroBaTa ot3hbhhboct h floSpoacenaTejieH HHTepec kim 
TanaHTJiHBOTO MJia/io noKOJieHHe. Ctothhh ca CTy/ieHTHTe (|)H3hhh h 
xhmhhh, kohto npeMHHaxa npe3 HeroBaTa jiaSopaTopna no TexHHKa Ha 
(J}H3hhhhji eKcnepHMeHT b yHHBepcHTeTa. ,H,Hec Te ca rp-bSHaKa Ha Hauiero 
yHHTencKO cfaCJiOBne b oSnacTTa Ha TOHHHTe HayKH h 6e3 cbMHeHHe BceKH ot 
Tax c nyBCTBO Ha Sjiaro/iapHOCT h yBaaceHne ch cnoMHa cbo» yHHTOi. 

IlHHiemHaT Te3H pe#OBe Cbmo ce CMjrra 3a yneHHK Ha XpncTO 
Koctob. ToflHHH Hapefl a3 HMax BMMoacHOCT 3a necTH cpemn h pa3roBopn c 
Hero. IIoMHa kojiko pa^ocTeH Seine toh, KoraTO My noflapnx e^Ha KHHra c 
Moe ynacTne (IHenyflKO h up., 1980). Jlp nocneflHHTe #hh Ha acHBOTa ch 
XpncTO Koctob nojiarauie rpnacn 3a nofloSpjmaHe Ha ptKOBOfleHOTO ot Hero 
cnncaHHe „cDH3HKa". Toh HacToaBauie jx& Hannuia hjucojiko CTaTHH 3a hobhji 
HayneH pa3fleji Ha cnncaHHeTO „<I>H3HKa h TexHHKa". 3a cfaacaneHne BMecTO 
TOBa H/jBaT HacToaiHHTe ckpomhh SeneacKH. 

CMtpTTa Ha XpncTO Koctob e Teacica 3ary6a 3a StJirapcicaTa 
(J)H3HHecKa KOJierna. Bejiorpa^HHiuKaTa oSmecTBeHOCT e b jxbjir icbm 
HeroBaTa naMeT. 

EEJIE)KKH 

1. Heny6jiHKyBaH ptKonnc ot 1982 r. (njnocTpaHHHTe kt>m TeKCTa He ca ot 
TOBa BpeMe). ToraBa aBTopvr (B.B.T.) e 3011 eHT h KaH/jH^aT Ha xnivranecKHTe HayKH 
b KaTe^paTa no 4)h3hkoxhmh>i Ha Co(|)HHCKHa yHHBepcHTeT „Cb. Kjihmcht 

OxpHflCKH". 

2. B crpa^aTa Ha XHMnnecKHa (JmicyjiTeT Ha Co(j)HHCKHa yHHBepcHTeT ce 
HaMHpauie Ka6nHen>T Ha ra. ac. XpncTO Koctob (oTBopeHHaT npo3opeH Ha hhckoto 
Kpnjio Ha crpa^aTa). 

3. B 3anaflHOTO Kpnno Ha BTopna eTa>K Ha Ta3H crpa/ja ce HaMnpanie 
Ka6nHen>T no (})H3HKa Ha XpncTO Koctob. 

4. Ji,-p AneKcaHfltp Tomob (1930-2008) ce neHcnoHnpa KaTO CTapmn 
HayneH ci>Tpya,HHK BTopa CTeneH b HHCTHTyra no acTpoHOMHa Ha B'bJirapcKaTa 



277 



aicaaeMHa Ha Hayiarre. /l.OB'bpniHTejiHHTe pa6oTH b H3rpa5Kfl,aHeTO Ha 
o6cepBaTopHHTa, hchhoto o6opy/tBaHe, pa3BHTHe h MOK/ryHapo/tHa aKTHBHOCT, 
KoaTO OKa3a BJinaHHe h Btpxy pa3BHTHeTO Ha rpa/ja, HecbMHeHO ca HeroBO p,eno. 
5. http://www.astro.bas.bg/~aobel/ 



JIHTEPATYPA 

Ahtob, A. (1999). AcTpoHOMHnecKa oScepBaTopna - Eenorpa/iHHK. 
Publ. Astron. Obs. Belgrade, JV° 64, 5-10. 

Tomob, A.H. (1999). Ejiu3ku u npxu zanaKmuKu. Co<f)Ha: XepoH npec. 

IIIejiyAKO, A., TouieB, B.B. & IljiaTHKaHOB, J\. (1980). O MexaHHKe h 
TepMOflHHaMHKe CHCTeM c jiHHHeM Tpex(J)a3Horo KOHTaKTa (cc. 275-300). B.: 
PycaHOB, A.H. & TyflpHH, cD. 1 !. (pe/t.). CoepeMennan meopun 
KanujiJinpnocmu. K 100-jiemuw meopuu KanujimpHocmu ru66ca. HeHHHrpa#: 
Xhmhji. 



S3 Professor B.V. Toshev, 

Department of Physical Chemistry, 

University of Sofia, 

1 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia, 

BULGARIA 
E-Mail: toshev@chem.uni-sofia.bg 



278 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal for Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume I, Number 3, 2010 



Oral History 



45 rO^HHH ACTPOHOMHHECKA OECEPBATOPKfl B 
EEJlOEPAflHHK (1965 - 2010) 



KAIIHTAHHTE HA HEBETO 
PA3KA3 1} 



BajieHTHH KAHEB 



Abstract. This story by Valentin Kachev, a Bulgarian writer, is for the 
first years of the astronomical observatory in Belogradchik. Then high school 
students were involved in recording the trajectories of the first artificial 
satellites of Earth. This information is transmitted by radio to the Soviet Space 
Center "Kosmos" in Moscow. 

Keywords: astronomical observatory, Belogradchik, high school 
students, artificial satellites 



KoraTO ch cnoMHaivt 3a ^ctctboto, a3 BHHara ce BptinaM b oh3h 
flHBeH Kpaii, b kohto cjibmieTO rpeenie Haii-apKO, nTHiiHTe HypyjiHKaxa Haft- 
xySaBHTe necHH, kohto HaKora ci>m cjiynian, a hoihhtc HacrbnBaxa KaTO 
Marb0CHHu,H, kohto 3anajiBaxa Han- Hanpe# cpeStpHHre 3Be3flH Ha HeSeTO, 
onepTaBaxa napoBHaTa MtraaBKHa Ha Mjichhhji nbT h KoraTO BenepTa 
noT-bBanie b GyjiOTO Ha 3Be3AHHa Kynon, oacHBJTBanie TaHHCTBeHara KpacoTa 



279 



Ha MOHTe Eejiorpa^HHiiiKH cKajiHH Bn^eHHa. JlyHaTa ronenejuiBame 

^ajieHHHa XOpH30HT, CKbTajI B Ce6e CH npHHy^JIHBHTe (J)OpMH Ha 3aMbU,H, 

xopa h 3BepoBe, 3a jx& H3rpee b OHaa cpeSbpHa no3JiaTa, kojito OTKpojraa Ha 
(J30Ha Ha HeSeTO cnjiyeTHTe Ha OMarbocaHnre ot HomTa CKann. 

"Marb0CHHu,HTe" HaM-Hanpefl ce nojiBHxa Ha HeSeTO. Te 6axa HaM- 
apKHTe 3Be3flH, kohto ce pa3xoacAaxa no# 3Be3flHHJi Kynoji h oraeac/iaxa etc 
CBOHTe 3araflBHHH jibHH 3eMjrra, xopaTa h npHTHXHajiHre b HOiirra CKann Ha 
MoeTO ^eTCTBO. Tpy/iHO 6nxa HaMepHJiH Te H3 CBonre HeSecmi nbTHina 
KpacoTa, kojito 6h Morna jx& 3aceHHH TanHCTBOTO Ha BenHKaHHre, H3npaBHJiH 
moihhh CHara noA cpeSbpHHJi noKpHB Ha 3Be3flnre. ^ann opeonbT Ha 
^eTCTBOTO e 6hji no-cnjieH ot KpacoTaTa, kojito Me 3ao6HKanjime, Ta MOjrra 
^eTCKa (J3aHTa3Ha ch npeflCTaBJime bchhko TOJiKOBa xySaBO? E/iBa jih... 
JIioSoBTa kbm KpacoTaTa H3nbJiBa ^gtckoto Cbpne onje npn nbpBnre 
KpanKH, kohto HeyKpenHanHTe ^ctckh KpaneHna npaBjrr, 3a jx& flocTHraaT 
KpacHBaTa (J)ea... H 3anoHBa OH3H flbJibr m>T KbM KpacoTaTa, kohto HHe 
CJie^BaMe npe3 nejimi ch >khbot... A KaKBO no-ronjiMO macrae ot TOBa #a 

OTKpHeiH T03H KOCMHHeCKH HbT B HanajIOTO Ha TBOeTO ACTCTBO, KOeTO 

3anoHHa c ntpBHTe noneTH Ha H3KycTBeHHTe cnbTHHUH Ha 3eMJiTa, c kohto 
CbBeTCKHTe xopa OTKpnxa HOBa epa bbb bchhoto CTpeMJieHHe Ha hobchikhji 
reHHH kbm MorbinecTBO h KpacoTa! ToraBa xopaTa 3a nbpBH nbT H3npamaxa 
cboji 3eMeH no3#paB kbm 3Be3flnre. A Te3H MarbocHnnn, kohto Benep ce 
pa3xo>KAaxa no HeSeTO h hh Kapaxa 3ae#HO c 6a6nTe h ^jiflOBnHTe na ctohm 
£0 kbcho no flBopoBeTe, BnepnjiH noraeflH Harope, onaKBanKH ^a cb3peM 
Meac/iy 3Be3AHTe Haii-apKaTa, kojito nbTyBauie b 6e3Kpaa h pa3Hacame 
no3ApaBa Ha BennKna hobck. Tpy/jHO e jx& ce onnme KaK xopaTa nocpemaxa 
CBOjrra KOCMHnecKa epa. fine ce H3KanBaxMe Ha HaM-BHCOKOTO mjicto npn 
KpenocTTa, Kb/ieTO 3Be3flnre 6axa Haii-MHoro, a ^onnHaTa, CKbrana b 
neceHTa Ha cnaBenTe rocTnre ot BeKOBeTe, b Te3n hoihh na 3Be3AHH 
npa3HHu,H, eAHHCTBeHa 6h Morna na cbnepHHHH Ha KpacoTaTa, kojito 



280 



H3Tpi>rHa HOBeniKHa pa3yM c ITtpBHTe, kohto roaeTaxa ot niojiKaTa Ha 
3eMjrra h apcTHraaxa BceaeHaTa. 

^Ba Sncepa ot HananoTO h Kpaa Ha orpOMHa ortpaHHa CBi>p3Baxa 
OKeaHa Ha 3Be3aHTe c T03H oa3HC Ha He3eMHa KpacoTa, a TexHHTe OTSaactHH 
b OMaiiHHTe hoihh npeBp-bmaxa KpacoTaTa Ha HeSeTO h 3eMaTa bib 
BtJinieSeH cbst Ha actctboto, 3a KoeTO npHKa3KHTe Saxa ocTapean hjih no- 
tohho ome He Saxa H3MHCJieHH, 3ampTO Hne 3anoHBaxMe aa acHBeeM b eaHa 
HOBa epa, kojito 3anHCBanie cbocto ST>aenie npea HauiHTe aeTCKH ohh, 
poaeHH 3a KpacoTa. 

Moace Ha hskoh aa ce CTopn ayaHO, ho easa oceM roflHHH, caea KaTO 
noaeTa ritpBHaT H3KycTBeH chbthhk Ha 3eMjrra, Ha msctoto, KbaeTO Beaep 
ce CTpynBauie Maao h roaaiao aa raeaa npaTeHHHHTe kt>m 3Be3aHre, h3bhch 
cpeSpncra CHara AcTpoHOMHaecKa oScepBaTopna b EeaorpaaanK , a b 
flHHTe Ha HeiiHOTO OTKpnBaHe tocth Ha Moa rpaa Saxa asaiviaTa kocmhhcckh 
SpaTa EeaaeB h JleoHOB. B KaKBH kocmkhcckh toakhh pacTeuie Moa rpaa,, h 
kojiko SaxMe macTJiHBH nne aeuaTa, ae 3aeaHO c OTMHHaBamHTe Jia3ypHH 
toahhh Ha HauieTO aeTCTBO pacTeuie h HaniaTa aioSoB kbm xopaTa, kohto hh 
aapnxa macTHeTO aa Si>aeM aeua Ha KOCMHaecKaTa epa! 

A3 BHaax c OHHTe ch b Moa poaeH rpaa HoBeKBT, kohto 3a nbpBH 6e 
apt3Haa aa H3Jie3e caM cpea HeoSaTHHa xop Ha 3Be3flHre. KaKbB Seine toh - 
HjncaKbB CBptxHOBeK hjih ayao? He, toh Seine e/niH oSmoiOBeH aoBeK, 
kohto Tonao ce ycMHXBauie Ha xopaTa ot Moa rpaa. Toh npoTaranie ki>m Tax 
Te3H piaje, 3a aa aocTHine ro bchhkh ot OHa3H cnjia, kosto aoHece Ha 
3eM»Ta HOBaTa KOCMHaecKa paaocr. 

ToflHHH no-KbCHO, KoraTO H3pacHax h OTHaox aa yaa b MocKBa, a3 
Sax macTaHB, ae acHBeex h ce yanx KpaM eaHO ot HaM-xySaBHTe MecTa b 
ctBeTCKaTa CToanua. OSmeacHTHeTO hh Se ao IlaMeTHHKa Ha 
KOCMOHaBTHKaTa, a npo3opu,HTe Ha HHCTHryra raeaaxa b HaM-KpacHBHa 
naBHJiHOH Ha B^HX - naBHanoHa "Kocmoc". Beaep, SnaeiiKH aaaeae ot 



281 



3Be3flHHa Kynon Ha Moa po/ieH rpa/i, necTO ce pa3xoayiax no ajiejrra Ha 
KOCMOHaBTHTe. Cpe# naMeTHHu,HTe Ha IIhojikobckh, KapantOB, TarapHH, 
TepeuiKOBa, a3 ce 3acroaBax npe# naMeTHHa 6k>ct Ha HOBeica, nnaTO Tonna 
/UiaH ^oKOCHax b poflHna ch rpa/i - npe# naMeTHHKa Ha JleoHOB. H othobo 
TyK, Ha CBBeTCKa 3eMa, a3 ce nyBCTBax macTJiHB etc cbocto kocmhhccko 
^eTCTBO. Bptmax ce b cnoMeHHTe ot ronaMa MocKBa icbm Moa MantK 
Bejiorpa/iHHK. . . Bax b ocmh KJiac, KoraTO CTaHax Ha6jiK)flaTeji Ha 
H3KycTBeHHTe cnbTHHHH Ha 3eMaTa npn AcTpoHOMHnecKaTa oScepBaTopna b 
rpa/ja. Hne 6axMe BJiioSeHH b acTpoHOMHaTa iohohih h b "KOCMnnecKOTO 
oko" cpefl CKanHTe, Kaicro HapnnaxMe HaniaTa oScepBaTopna. Benep, ihom 
CJTbHneTO npnSepeme noaneflHHTe ch ji^hh 3a/i xpeSeTnre Ha Beflepmnca 
CKaTaBaxMe KHHrHTe h TeTpa^KHTe b yHeHHHecKnre nanm h noeMaxMe no 
CTpijMHHa hbt. KanHaji KaTO nrnna Ha xtJiMa Ha/i KpenocTTa hh onaKBame 
HamnaT KOCMnnecKH ^om... Kojiko 6tp30 jieTaxa roflnmiTe!... 




AjieKcaHAtp Tomob (ot ceMenHna apxHB Ha ct.h.c. H. Tomob) 



282 



KaTO ne jih Bnepa HHe ce H3KanBaxMe Ha cfamoTO TOBa mjicto etc 
CBOHTe SaSn h ^jmoBHH, 3a jx& bh/ihm ot bhcokoto nbpBHJi chbthhk. Cera 
HHe KpanexMe etc caMonyBCTBHeTO Ha MOMneTa Ha Bee ome HeyKpenHanHTe 
njiemn, Ha kohto jiokh rojuiMaTa OTroBopHOCT jx& St^aT HJieHOBe Ha 
ronaMOTO ceMeiicTBO Ha „HHrep-KOCMOc". 3a Hac ToraBa CtBeTCKaTa CTpaHa 
6e ^aneHHa h He^ocTHacHMa, MaKap ne b cbihoto BpeMe tji hh 6e 6jiH3Ka h 
Cbp/ieHHa. BceKH ,zjeH nojiynaBaxMe TenerpaMHTe ot ijeHTtp "Kocmoc" b 
MocKBa c HiH(J)poBaHHTe ^aHHH, kohto nepTaexa HeSecHnre Koop^HHaTH Ha 
onaKBaHHTe chbthhhh. Ha noKpnBa Ha OScepBaTopHjrra 6e h HauiaTa 
KOCMHHecKa nnomaflKa. TaM HHe HacoHBaxMe acTpoHOMnnecKHre TptSn h 
TexHHTe 3opKH ohh "SnoKHpaxa" HeSecHHa OKeaH. IleTHMa HaSmoflaTejiH 
3ae#HO c Hauina ptKOBOflHTen AjieKcaH/i'bp Tomob npaBexMe SjiOKa/ja b 
HeSeTO. Bcjnca Hom "pa3roBapaxMe" etc 3Be3flHre Ha "Jlnpa", "JleSefl", 
"OpnoH", "KacHonea", "Kocnre HaBepoHHKa"... 

Tpy/iHO e fla onmna nyBCTBaTa, kohto H3nHTBax b OHe3H 3Be3flHH 
MnroBe. Haii-HanpeA norjieac^ax yTHXHajiara flOJiHHa Ha CKajiHTe h HeHHHjrr 
Sncep Me noBeac^anie no CBOJira orbpjiHHa Harope kt>m npocTopHTe Ha 
6e3Kpaa. IIpHJienHJi ohh ^o acTpoHOMHnecKaTa TptSa, ^bxbt mh 3anHpauie. 
3Be3flHre ce npnSjiHacaBaxa j\o MeH h a3 Sax TexeH rocno/iap. 3pHrejiHOTO 
none Ha ype^a OTKpaflBanie ot HeSeTO HaM-KpacHBHTe Cb3Be3flHJi, kohto 
acenaex jx& HMaM. UejiHjrr ce npeHacax b TaHHCTBeHHJi cbjit Ha KpacoTaTa, 
kojito mh flapaBauie kocmocbt. B yuiHTe mh 3ByneHie My3HKa, 3aBJiafljiBama 
h HenoKopHa, My3HKa, kojito Hmcora no-paHO He Sax cjiyuian... H tji 
3ByHenie b OHe3H MnroBe Ha macine, KoraTO HMax npe# OHHre ch Ha 
xBtpjieii mjicto Haii- KpacHBHTe 3Be3#H... 

TnacbT Ha HaiHHa pT>KOBOflHTeji Tomob: "BHHMaHHe", ycnjiBauie onje 
noBene HauieTO BtJiHeHne. B yniHre mh "oTeKBaxa" no3HaTHTe CHraajiH Ha 
cnBTHHKa: "nHO-nH-nHH...". JJ/bxtT HancTHHa 3aMHpaiue, KoraTO hjikoh 
H3BHKBauie: "Eto ro... xBaHax ro..." TptSnTe Ha bchhkh hh ce HacoHBaxa b 



283 



paiioHa Ha macTJiHBeHa, ycroui npi>B j\a 3a6ejieacH KOCMHnecKHa rocTeHHH. 
ToBa 6axa MHroBe Ha BtpxoBHO BtJiHeHne h HeonncyeMO macrae. ManKaTa 
3Be3AHHKa njiyBauie b OKeaHa Ha BceneHaTa, TaHu,yBanie nojx yTHXHanHTe 

3BC3AH, OTnpaBHJIH CHJIHHH JltHH KbM 3CMHHH npaTeHHK. TjiaCbT Ha 
ptKOBOAHTeJIH OTHOBO HH H3Ba>KflaHie OT BU,eneHeHHeTO : "BHHMaHHe, 

3anoHBaMe 3acHnaHe..." Ton ropHHanie HMeHaTa hh, BO^eHKH Hauina B3op 
no TpaeKTopHjrra Ha 3eMHaTa 3Be3#a... 

OcTaBaiiKH cnbTHHKa j\a ce npoeKTHpa noA hjikoji KpacHBa apKa 
3Be3#a, HaTHCKaxMe SyroHHre Ha xpoHorpa(J)a, a flOJiy b 3anaTa 3a tohho 
BpeMe ce ronncBaxa ceKyH^HTe Ha Hauina cnbTHHK. Pa3, ppa, Tpn, nerapn, 
neT... nHHiemoTO ycTpoftcTBO {JDHKcnpanie HaniHTe 3Be3AHH MHroBe. A Hne 
rope 3acronopjiBaxMe cbohtc acTpoHOMHnecKH TptSn h THnaxivte b 
H3HHCJiHTejiHaTa 3ana, kb/icto Han-Hanpe^ cnnpaxivie npe# rojuuviaTa KapTa 
Ha 3Be3flHOTO He6e h OTKpHBaiiKH ceKTopa, b kohto ce HaMHpanie HaiueTO 
CB3Be3AHe, B3HMaxMe no/ipoSHaTa ceKTopHa KapTa h c Hea othobo 
3acTaBaxMe no# 3Be3flHHa Kynon. ManKHTe (jjeHepneTa ocBeTaBaxa KapTHTe. 
Hne ce Brjieac^axMe othobo b CBOHTe TptSn h Ttpcnxivie na HaMepHM b Tax 
3Be3flHre, no/i kohto Saxisie 3aceKJin cntTHHKa. H bchhko TOBa ce noBTapauie 
3HMe h neTe, b CTy/i h Mpa3, KoraTO ptueTe hh 3aMpt3Baxa, a BflTbptT 
HCKame js,a o6pynH yuiHTe hh. Haivtaxa noKoii HaniHTe cbpua, KJioKoneuie 
KaTO ByjiKaH HauiaTa KOCMnnecKa MJia/iocT. . . 

"OTKpHBaHeTo" Ha 3Be3/iaTa, no# kojito 6e 3aceneH cnbTHHKbT, 6e hc- 
thhcko macrae. E/iBa ToraBa H3JiH3axMe ot OHOBa cfaCToaHne Ha kocmhhccko 
3aMaiiBaHe h macTJiHBH cjiH3axMe b H3HHCJiHTejiHaTa 3ana. H3MepBaxMe 
"KOCMHHecKHTe" pa3CToaHHJi Ha CBOHTe 3Be3AH h onpeflejiaxMe TexHHTe 
Koop^HHaTH. KoraTO H3HHCJieHHjrra 6axa totobh, ptKOBOflHTejurr HaHacauie 
Koop^HHaTHTe Ha e^Ha rojiaMa 3Be3#Ha KapTa h e^Ba, KoraTO HaniHTe 
H3HHCJieHHa o6pa3yBaxa TOHHaTa TpaeKTopna Ha cntraHKa, c tojijimo 
oSneKHeHHe BB3flBXBaxMe. Hne Saxivte cboSoahh #o cjieflBamHa chbthhk, 



284 



kohto TpaGBanie #a HaSniOflaBaMe npe3 Ta3H Hom, a Ha pbroboahtcjiji My 
npeflcroeme ome e^Ha OTroBopHa sa^ana. Ton ce 3aTBapanie b 3auaTa 3a 
CboSmeHHa h H3npamauie b ueHTtp "Kocmoc" b MocKBa ^aHHHre ot HauiHTe 
Ha6jiK)AeHHa. ,H,Ba naca cjieA MHHaBaHeTO Ha cnbTHHKa TaM TpaGBauie %a 
nojiyraT HiHCppoBaHaTa Tejierpaivta c pe3yjiTaTHTe. IIo hskojiko he>th Ha Horn 
kbm CtBeTCKaTa CTpaHa, kbm MocKBa jieTaxa b ecbnpa niHCppoBaHHTe #aHHH 
ot HaSjuofleHHaTa h HMeHaTa Ha Te3H MOMneTa ot Bejiorpa^HHuiKaTa 

rHMHa3H3, KOHTO H Ta3H HOII], Ha 6e3CBHHe 30pKO SflHXa B KOCMHHeCKHa 

OKeaH h flaBaxa cbos CKpoMeH npnHOC b OBJiaflaBaHeTO Ha Kocivioca... 

3aBpBmaHKH ce npe3 roflHHHre othobo npefl nneflecTajia Ha 
KOCMOHaBTHKaTa b MocKBa h aneaTa Ha Te3H, kohto nponpaBHxa nbTa kbm 
3Be3AHTe, a3 ce 3aMHCJiaM 3a OHa3H KpacoTa, c kosto Me flapn actctboto b 
Moa MaiiBK Bejiorpa/iHHK, KpacoTaTa, kosto #Hec H3MepBaM c MamaSHTe Ha 
KOCMHnecKaTa epa, hhhto ctBpeMeHHHH hh 6e OTpe/ieHO jx& St/ieM ! 

EEJIE)KKIi 

1. B naMer Ha rn. ac. Xpnero Koctob (E060) (1932 - 1982), ocHOBaTejiHT, h 
CT.H.c.jj-p AjieKcaHfl-bp Tomob (1930 - 2008), HaiunaT jho6hm ptKOBOflffreji. Hexa 
ch cnoMHHT 3a Te3H npeKpacHH MiiroBe h mohtc npnaTejiH ot rHMHa3HaTa b 
Eejiorpa^HMK: Emhji JIo3aHOB, Bnaao EeproB, Mhtko PaaeHOBCKH, EBreHH ElaBJiOB, 
MnpojiioG flpyuaHOB, ATaHac JIhjiob, Mhiuo TaTapoB h ome MHoro flpyrn... 

2. AcTpoHOMHnecKaTa oGcepBaTopna b Eejiorpa^HMK e nocTpoeHa npe3 1962 
r. 0(J3HiiHajiHOTO h OTKpHBaHe e Ha 20 k>hh 1965 r. Hafi-rojieMHaT TcnecKon Ha 
o6cepBaTopnaTa e 60 cm KacerpeH (1969 r.)- IIo TOBa BpeMe TejiecKontT e Hafi- 
rojieMHaT b EtJirapna. Ot 1976 r. oGcepBaTopnaTa b Eejiorpa^HHR npHHa/jjie^KH Ha 
HHCTHTyTa no acTpoHOMHa Ha EtJirapcicaTa aKaaeMHa Ha HayKHTe. 



El Mr. Valentin Kachev, 

Union of the Bulgarian Writers, 

10, Kosta Lulchev Str., ent. B, apt. 32 

1113 Sofia, BULGARIA 

E-Mail: vkachev@abv.bg 



285 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal for Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume 1, Number 3, 2010 



Archives 



2KHBKO H HEBEHA 
(JIHPHHECKA nOEMA) 1} 



M. TOHEB 



2) 



Abstract. Lt. Gochev published in 1916 a poetry book entitled 
'Recollections from the Battlefields' [Bojni spomeni]: "in memory of fallen 
heroes in this war from the 15 th Infantry Lorn Regiment". Central place in this 
book of poetry is the poem "Zhivko and Nevena". Neither the book nor the 
poetic attempts of the Bulgarian officer are now familiar to modern audiences. 

Keywords: 15 th infantry Lorn regiment, Belogradchik, WWI, naive 
soldier poetry 



IHACT 
1. 
ripn BejiHHaBHii bh# Ha Pnna, 
C Ttra ch cnoMH»M ^necKa a3 
3a Apyra nnaHHHa, MeH MHJia, 
BajiKaH'bT 3ana/ieH y Hac. 
TaM rq 3anoHBa - Bptmica nyica 
3oBe ce toh (6e CTpanieH Son 
3a Hea - cbpShh-bt ot TyKa 
He cnpa ce Bene bi>b 6en>T cboh). 

286 



Cajiani e BTopn npoxofl BaaceH, 

Cbcth HnKOJia - TpeT no pe#; 

Bohhhkbt Hani, KopaB h CHaaceH, 

IIpe3 Tax npeMHHa Haii-Hanpefl. 

Eii TaM, bt>b to3h Kpaii SanicaHCKH, 

Pefljrr ce hskojiko cena; 

Ha# Tax ce B^nraT BenHKaHCKH, 

IIoKpHTH B"bpxoBe c ena... 

H ropcKH pynen CTy^eHH 

Ce cnymaT c Jiyzia 6tp3HHa, 

B ropaTa ctpHH h eneHH 

Ce CKHTaT b paHHa BQjjpima. 

TaM nponeT HyflHa e h Pnna 

Bh 3aBHflH.na Ha to3h Kpaii; 

npnpoflaTa e TaMO CKpnna 

H npenecTTa Ha 3eMHHii paii: 

5KeHaTa TaM e Tbii KpacHBa, 

C pa3BHTa, MpaMopHa CHara, 

Ohh KaTO Ha caMO/niBa, 

Pa3TyxBaT BcaKaKBa Ttra. 

2. 
KbM to3h Kpaii ctpue BJiene Me, 

IU,e bh pa3Kaaca pa3Ka3 thx, 

KaK BtB He/iaBHO - MJia/io BpeMe, 

HapoHHO a3 ro noceTHx. 

IIo BOJieH acpeSnii Ha cb^SaTa, 

Hjih cjiynaiiHO, Tocnofl 3Haii, 

IIpeMecTeH Sax npe^H BoiiHaTa 



287 



Ha anyacSa b 3ana/iHHa KpaM. 

B EejiorpaflHHK cKanncT npHCTHraax 

Ha jisto - xySaB e Tora3 

rpa^eii.'bT, ho He Sax Mom MHTHan 

H rpaac/jaHHTe, b ct>ihhh nac, 

noxBanHxa ce, ne b HynpeHe 

„KypopT" e no-xy6aB - >khbot 

TaM HMa, chjiho oacHBJieHbe, 

BanKaH h aceH HeSocBOfl. 

Ceno HynpeHe e no# caMHH 

Cbcth HnKOJia - npoxo/i TpeT; 

TaM cpemaT ce h rpa^cKH flaMH, 

H cenaHKH etc xoa HaneT. 
ner Homn a3 b rpa^a HomyBax 
H He CTtpnax, caM peuinx, 
C HHKoro ce He cSoryBax, 
KypopTa cencKH noceTHx. 
3axjiacHaT, CKnrax ce no Kpaa, 

Oicbnax ce b noTOKa ^hb, 

HaA3i>pHax BpeflOM, 6e3 jx& 3Haa 

3amo - cnoTaeH, MannanHB. 

3. 

npn MpaK Ha H3BOpa OTHflOX, 

H cKpnx ce 3&jx BtpSaK e/piH, 

H Tyn mo nyx, h TyM mo bh^ox, 

IU,e noMHa MHoro om toahh ... 

Momh ce 6axa cto cbSpanH 

H SyjiKH MJia/jH Meac/iy Tax; 



288 



3aicaHKH, xyjiH h noxBajin, 

Xopa h necHH, rntn h cm»x. 

(Tt>h mhjio e #a me^ani ckphtom 

Ha cencKHTe momh, ne a3 

PeniHx ToraBa jxa. Hannnia 

3a Tax, noHe, qjxvlu pa3Ka3). 

EflHa ce b to3h MHr 3a#afle, 

MoMa HaneTa, pyaca-acap, 

CyKMaH npHCTeraaT H30T3a/ie, 

KonaH npe3 KtCTpa irbCTpomap. 

TtpAH OTBOpeHH H3flyTH, 

B ^aHTejiKH 5enH ckphth can, 

B nOJIBHHKH h KpanKa oSyra, 

HopantT ce Senee hjlii. 

ripHCTtna KpOTKO TJI - H BCHHKH 

SaMJitKHaxa npn hchhh bh/i, 

A ^Be 3ananeHH ohhhkh 
Hafl3"bpHaxa ot cpemHH 3h#. 
EflHH K)HaK 6e Tyn 3&j\ 3H#a, 

IIpHHaKBanie a toh, ho ts; 
He 3Haa, cneTe jih Tyn oSH^a, 

Ohh Ha Hero flop He cnpa... 

4. 

HeBeHa SaBHO cjio>kh ctomhh 

Kpan H3Bopa h c mhji no3ApaB 

Ce cnpa npn ^pyacKH mhjih, ckpomhh, 

3a pefl - 3&jx 3H#a 5Khbko npaB, 

3acpaMeH, pa3>mocaH, xpnnHa, 



289 



noflXBtpjiH £yMH ABe no hqPl; 

TyM CMax B'bzQyjiK, a toh icmma 

Ot kjx, ne BceKH My ce CMeM. 

HeBeHa Seine TbacHa, Tnxa, 

Ha 5KnBKa hhiiio He Ka3a, 

Hen Apy>RKH He pa3Becejinxa, 

^OpH, npopOHH TJI CfaJI3a. 

Hana BO^a h ch ora/ie, 

OcTaHa 5Khbko fltjiro caM, 

H CTpecHa ce, Kora Me BH^e, 

H3npeHHJi ce npe# Hero TaM. 

„0 MJia/jH momko, pa3KaacH mh, 

3amo e TtacHa Ta3 MOMa?" 

3anHTax a3. - , Ax Teacn mh, 

OTBtpHa toh, - ne t» caMa"... 

H B T03H MHr CH CnOMHH 5KHBKO, 

He HyacfleHeu, ct>m a3 e/nrH, 

IIorjieAHa Me h Me ocTaBH, 

H3ne3Ha b Mpaica ropKH chh. 

E/ihh ce CTapeu, SenoBJiaceH 

IIoKa3a - naK 3anHTax a3 - 

A toh, ycMHXHaT, cjia/iKorjiaceH 

H3na mh cneflHHji pa3Ka3: 

5. 

„K)HaK 6e HeHHHa jhoSobhhk, 

Mna/ieH ro Ka3Baxa, xBtpicaT. 

Ha nnpHH xoahji 6e SyHTOBHHK, 

J\a B^nra MaiceflOHCKH 6paT". 



290 



,,^0 Typu,HTe Kora ce Shxmc, 

PaHeH ce BtpHa b ceno toh, 

Tora3 c HeBeHa ra ro/nrxMe, 

Ho naK Mna/ieH OTH^e b 6oh". 

„IIpH JIaxHa 6h ce c rtpica nofltJi, 

E/ihh ocTaHan cpemy cto, 

IIpH ^.oiipaH, CrpyMnna e Mon>ji 

J\& CTopn ABaMceT npax, TecTo!... 

Ho nojiRtT hm e 6hji npeMecTeH 

Kt>m cbpSirre, h c Tax ce 6n; 

Ha KajiHMaHHu,a He H3BecTeH 

H3ry6ii ce Mjia/ieH, yBH ! . . . 

„Pa3npaB3T - b nneH ne 6hji nona/pian, 

B 3aH/iaHH raneji toh cera, 

Hjih ce CKHTan ron, rona/pian, 

HeBeHHHa e toh Ttra... 

,„HpyrapnTe My Ka3BaT caMO, 

He BH^enH ro KaK „Ha Hoac" 

Ce XBtpjian - Mano h ronaMO 

CKtpSaT 3a Hero Tyica onj"... 

3aMHHa CTapena no flpyvia, 

nponienHax a3: „To3, kohto b Son 

Yivipe - noeTa npaBO flyivra - 

5KnBee b man bchho toh... 

6. 
BoHHa, BOHHaL. E/ihh no flpyrn 
npHnac/ia oie/i K)HaK, K)HaK. 
3a hobh noflBH3n, 3acjiyrn, 



291 



OTenecTBO 30Be hh naK. 

IIo ApyM, b Ka3apMirre, no flBopa, 

KaTO nnejiH ce Tpyna cbjit, 

Pefljrr, oSnanaT hobh xopa, 

KaTO 3a npaBHHK h>ikoh cbjit. 

H BCHHKO TyH b MtJinaHHe CTaBa, 

BoiiHa Te 3HaaT mo e Ben; 

Ct.fl6a HapoAHa ce peniaBa 

Cbc CHJia o6ma, c KptB h Men. 




Maii 1913 r. - ocpHuepn ot 15-h nexoTeH JIomckh nonK h 4-h kohch nonK 

b c. HynpeHe 3) 

HancTHHa norpoM HenyBaH 

B TpHHaiicTO neTO hh CKpyuiH, 

Ho KaT repoii b 6op6n HiKOJiyBaH, 



292 



HapofltT toh He 3a/iyiHH... 

Yhhji e MajiKO, ho naK na3H 

He3HanHa cnjia bt>b rbp^H 

C noSeflH HOBH toh B Ha3H 

IU,e BapaTa ch 3aTBap#H. 

„^I,py>KHHaTa me TptrHe yrpe, 

ToTOBa poTaTa bh, 3HaM!" 

ManoptT Ka3a h nocoHH 

Ha MJia/i K)HaK, ^o Ha3H - caM. 

Tyfi 5Khbko Seme, a3 ro BHKHax, 

3anncax ro npn MeH h toh, 

IU,acTJiHB, ne paHO ro oSmcHax, 

3apene ce, m e repon... 

7. 

Ha Apyrn Ren TptraaxMe bchhkh, 

H3npamanie hh hcjih rpa#, 

IlBera, u,ejiyBKH h ohhhkh 

HacBJi3eHH - 5Khbko pa/i 

Be: - TaM HaicpaH rpa/ja hh Ka3a 

^pyacHHHHa, ne Ta3H hoih 
B HynpeHe me OTHfleM - pa/iocT 

H necHH - HOBa cnjia, MOiq! 
„Clc cbpSnTe me Stfle, Spara; 

KbM OflpHH HfflMa JX& BtpBHM. 
Ha Te3 H3MeHHHU,H, JXXfLQJl&TK, 
Hhh JIIOTO me CH OTftTbCTHM. 

BoHHHHHTe TaKa MtJiBaxa: 
„3a OTM^meHHe khhhm, 



293 



Maicap ne TerjiaTa MHoro 6axa, 

Hon hobh c pa/iocT me TbpnHM!" 

A 5Khbko CKananie ot pa/iocT, 

HeBeHa toh me bh/ih naic; 

3a Hen H3ry6H CBOirra MJia/iocT, 

3a Hen me 6t>jiq toh K)HaK. 

H3 ntTa a3 ro no3anHTax 

3a HeM, 3a Hanrra cpema om- 

A b cejio 3apa# Hero nycHax 

HynpeHHH ome Ta3H Hom- 

B HynpeHe flOCTa hhh CToaxMe, 

3a j\& y3Haa bchhko a3. 

^opn c HeBeHa ce BH^axMe 

(H >Khbko Seme Meac/iy Hac). 



'HI' _ tSS 


W : 






M * r -4 


ifffct'^ 




m^^mt 




HY ^V!" " ™ ~nJ 


■ ^Hj 


\ > ""^lflBnl 


*^^^ 


■ 





Bohhhuh ot c. HynpeHe 



4) 



8. 



A3 CKHTax MHoro no SanicaHa, 



294 



Ha MeacH-06a, Bptx CKajiHCT, 

Ce Kannx h 3a MeH ocTaHa 

Mhji cnoMeH to3h Ren jryHHcr. 

OSnnax a3 na ce KaTepa 

IIo KaMtHHTe, KaT K03a, 

OSnnax cicpHTa j\& HaMepa 

B ropaTa MOMHHa cbJi3a. 

Ho ceTHx HaM-rojiaMa pa/iocr, 

Kora BO#a CTy/ieHa nnx. 

Ha Btpxa MOHTa TbacHa mji&j\oct 

npoacHa, a3 ce BB3po#Hx. 

Be/prbac, KoraTO ce 3aB"bpHax 

Ot rpaHHu,aTa etc hbctji, 
Ha hbtji a3 cjiynaHHO 3i>pHax 
HeBeHa - b mht no3Ha Me tji. 

OTBtpHa MH C n03flpaB MOMHHCKH 

H enpa ce - a3 h noflapnx 

IlBeTjrra - ot CKann miaHHHCKH 

Hanpa3HO a3 rn He hochx. 

C ycMHBKa, b Sjiaro/iapHOCT, THxa, 

HeBeHa B3e rn h Ka3a: 

„na3eTe 5KHBKa". - Mi>kh CBnxa 

TjiacbT M. - JltCHa naic Cfaji3a 

Ho JI3BOTO OKO. - 3aKpH CH 

Ohh t» etc MOHTe HBeTJi 

H nocne n>BKaB CTaH h3bh ch, 

Be3 cSoroM b kbihh otjictji. 



295 



9. 

Bh/uix a naK - 3acMaHa Bene, 

IIpH H3Bopa Ha flpyrn rqk, 

OStpHa ce KtM MeH h pene 

(MaKap h as aa cbm epreH): 

„III,e nycHeTe jih yrpe 5KHBKa 

B OTnycK?" - Bt3XHTeH ot Hen, 

He MH TOBOpH CT>C yCMHBKa 

CboSoaho, 6e3 m pyMeHeM, 

A3 oSemax h - 5Khbko Seine 

Ha Apyrn rqh BtB ceno caM. 

Mna/ieac lOHaneH, toh ropenie 

B He3aracHM, nioSoBeH nnaM. 

Ho ce 3aBtpHaTHx, nenaneH... 

3anHTax ro - MtJina; y3Hax: 

HaMecTO norne/i mhji h raneH, 

HeBeHa My xB-bpjiH.ua npax. 

Ha H3Bopa c Aynia CMyreHa, 

Ot CTOMHHTe Pl >khbko nnji, 

PbpSa ch CBtpHana HeBeHa, 

Toh CTaHan bocbk - aebjrr, yHHJi. 

3amo HeBeHa 6e CTy^eHa? 

Hjih ce npaBenie TaKBa3, 

npe/i Hero? - 3HaM jih! - Bi>3ropfleHa 

Ot xySocTTa ch, MHCJiex a3, 

HaBapHO, tji oSnna BceKH 

K)HaK no Heii jx& jry^eH. 

HHMa, HancTHHa, HaBeKH 

Mna/ieHa tji me #a acaneii? 



296 



10. 

Helena Seine, #eH nocnefleH, 

B noH^ejiHHK - ni>T hh naica Ben. 

3a noxoA vpy^cu, ho noSefleH 

^I,py>KHHHHaT ^tpaca hh pen. 

HynpeHneHH pa36paxa - bchhkh 

ripHBenep 6axa ch ^OMa, 

IU,aCTJIHBLI,H ! - 5KHBKO Can, - eflHHHKH 

CHOBenie b HomHara TtMa. 

HeBeHa 6e My o6ema.ua 

(Ha H3Bopa BH/ja a toh) 

IIpH 3opn cpema - c KHTKa majia 

J\& ro H3npaTH tji Ha 6oh. 
3aMHCJieH, ropKH 5Khbko, MpaneH, 

Kp-bCTOCBa Kpan HeBeHHH #om, 

IIoflcpyiHBa, rjie^a bhht, BTopaneH, 

KaK tji me flOH/ie Kpa^euiKOM. 

KaK TOH Hie CKOHH - JltB - K"bM Hea, 

IU,e a npHTHCHe flo Cbpue, 

KaK toh c uejiyBica me paBJiee 

)Kap no HeBemiHO jnme. 

Ho eii 3opa ce cnnHa paHa, 

OSarpH jiHcmaTHH BajiKaH, 

HeBeHa HeMa... - Bene CTaHa 

H MaMica Pl... 5Khbko npnKOBaH 

,H,o 3H/ia naica a h mhcjih: 

HHMa H3Jn>ra t» - yBn! 



297 



H nepHH nnaHOBe Ha^BHCJiH 
IIo ne.no... B MHr ce tji jibh. 

11. 

CnaHHe o6ji» ohh My, 

Ta kpotko ^(kBKa ao6jih>kh, 

Ha rtp/iH KHTKa 3aicaHH My 

H c rnac ro mhji OKypaacn: 

„Th bpbcthhk moh ch, th He 3Haeni 

KaKBO e 6oii, KaKBO e CMtpT, 

HO TH B KptBTa CH CMCJIOCT TaeiH, 

Te6 Bpa3H HaMa jx& Bi>3npaT. 

„HeBeHO, Jin6e Bi>3ropfleHO, 

Hanpa3HO StSpnin, MeHe CMtpT 

He nuaniH, a TOBa CTy/ieHO 

Cbpue, b TBOHTa aceHCKa rptfl". 

„Th acannni mhcto no Mjia/ieHa, 

Ho BenHO acanSaTa He TpaM, 

3a Apyr jih ch th OTpe^eHa? 

Ctpue th 3a MeH He CTpaflaii". 

„A3 3HaM, ne 6o»t e yacaceH, 

Ho Kpaft Ha bchhko e CM-bpira, 

3a MeH acHBOTbT e HanpaseH 

Be3 Te6 - HeK rana bt>b nptCTTa". 

„Ako jx& 3Haax a3, ne th ch 

3aKpnjiHHK, aHren moh - 6e3 CTpax 

Be3 CTpax jieTjm 6h b 6oa, c mchth ch. 

H bchhko CTopnji 6h Ha npax". 

„CM-bpTTa MeH HaMa fla 3acerHe; 



298 



Ilofl TBOHTe aHrencKH Kpnjia 

3ana3eH, 5Khbko me H36erHe 

Ha 6oa bchhkh naTHJia". 

12. 

,„H,o6pe!" - HeBeHa ro npecene: 

„A3 TBoa ct>m, TOBa ro 3HaM. 

Ha BeHa TocnoA h ypene: 

3a flBa K)HaKa na CTpaflaM". 

OTnycHa cbpue tji, 3annaKa, 

npe3 KptCT a xBaHa 5Khbko b ivrar, 

Taica, b TpeneT Ufui, nonaica 

Rone pa3B-bp>Ke naK e3HK. 

Ha cirbHu,eTO jitHHre m,pBH 

Orpaxa ropcKH BtpxoBe, 

nOTOK, HbJieH CbC HbCTbpBH, 

IIIyMH cpe# ctpbmhh SperoBe. 

npnaTeH BeTpeu, ot ropaTa 

Koch HeBeHHHH thxo BeM, 

3ByK"bT (JDaTaneH Ha TptSaTa 

To CTpecHa - toh Ka3a Ha Hen: 

„He! - 5Khb me floiifla a3 cneA 6oa, 

KaT 3a Mna/ieHa OTMbCTa, 

H th me Stflein, MHJia, moji, 

Ha BeK ... - Cera j\& ce npocTa 

„C Te6, ne TptSaTa cbhph, HyBaM! 

IU,e MHHeM HHH OT TyK, BtB CTpOH. 
CtpneTO MH TBOHTO HyBaH, 

na3H ro, a3 ro KaT cbm b 6oh!" 



299 



H flt-nro HaKaHa uenyBica 

YcTa hm MJiami 3anenH, 

Ta3 HCKpeHa e^Ha MHJiyBKa 

Tepoa b SoeBe Kpenn... 

II HACT 
1. 

BoiiHaTa Seine oSjmeHa, 

3a6paBHx a3 HynpeHe Ben 

3a6paBHx xySaBa HeBeHa 

OcTaHana ot Hac ^aiien. 

B Kyna CTHraaxMe, oie/i Tpy/ieH, 

YcHJieH noxo/i, b jxbyKR h Kan. 

Ot KynneHKH a3 Sax yny/ieH 

(He Sax ra ppyrn iiki BJCK^aji) . 

EflHa HeBecTa SenonHKa 

Mh RaRQ xySaBH uBeTJi; 

TbH HHCT H CJiaffbK h e3HKa 

Be - y/iHBH Me c Hero tji. 

HomTa Se THxa b Kyna. - PaHO 

Ha noxoA hob. - B e#HO ceno, 

Ha Sjih30, cnpaxMe. - Pen, noflSpaHO, 

3a hoboto cbsto flejio. 

fltpacax npefl MOHTa poTa a3H, 

B yHHJIHIHHHH CeJICKH flBOp. 

3a Tyn mo naKauie Ben Ha3H 

Be thx, cbpfleneH pa3roBop. 

Ka3ax hm nocne, ne BOHHaTa 

C ycnex me CBtpniH HecfaMHeH, 



300 



Ho BceKH StJirapHH b 6op6aTa, 

TepoM #a Stfle bsbxhobch. 

He MaKeflOHHa e Hania, 

B TyM e BceKH ySe/ieH... 

H3MeHHHK , bT npenHBa nania 

Ha tusb - uqk St Ae ct> KpyineH! 

2. 

Hom THxa, nyHHa, 3Be3#Ha - bchhkh 

5Khbot 3anoHHyBaxMe hob; 

3amo, He 3HaM - a3 cbh cahkhkh 

CtHyBax: - ntpBa ch jhoSob. 

Ha yrpoTO 3anHTax 5KnBKa: 

KaKBO ctHyBa th, K)HaK? 

Ton Ka3a, 6e3 cbjih h npecTpyBKa: 

TocnoAHH nopyHHK, Bemca nan! 

H toh 6e Becen - rop# H36paHHK - 

flo Hero a3 HemacTHHK Sax, 

JlK)6jim, HO BeHHO 6hji CbM CTpaHHK, 

JIioShm jx& St^a He ycnax. . . 

H tt>h 3aBH>Kflax a3 Ha 5KnBa 

j\& Moacex, 6hx ro 3aMeHHJi, 

A3 caMO 6hx pajSpan TorHBa 

3am Ha CBeT cbm ce poflHJi... 

Ho qPl TptSaTa naK 3acBHpn, 

3a flC-TOTO mh cnoMHH t», 

Ot OKOJiHHTe TaM Sanpn 

Exo #0 Ha3H AOJieTa. 

^I,py>KHHHHaT HH CBHKB - SaBHO 



301 



riponeTe 3anoBe# 3a 6oii. 

H Ka3a: bchhkh, He3a6aBHO 

J\a Tpi>rHeM naic b noxo^eH CTpoM. 

TptraaxMe hhh - Ha/i Ha3H »cho 

Be He6o - ho c ntpBH Ton 

H BaTtp peBHa Jiy/io, 6»cho, 

^tac/i njiHCHa, KaTO 3a noTon... 

3. 

By...6y. Extjit TonoBe, CTeHe 

BanKaHtT, b TbMeH HeSocBOfl, 

Boii a/iCKH, Son 3a OTMT>meHe! 

3anoHHa nan grk Hapofl. 

Ot fl,yHaB naK #o Bap/jap MtTeH 

BoMcKa acejiJi3Ha b Son jicth, 

,H,o HepHO Mope nyn ce TbTeH, 

J\o Oxpn/i pa/iocTHO eXTH. 

K)Hau,H ! - IIpeHKH Te He 3Ha»T, 

BtB ab>ka, bt>b CHar no T03 BanKaH! 

MnHaxa, 6e3 Te jx& ce Ma»T, 

IIoAoSjiaHHHa BejiHKaH. 

Canam, CBeTH HnKOJia chokch 

IIpeB3eTH 6axa ntpBH ^eH, 

Ha „MeacH-06a" He/ioceaceH 

H,aji nojiK 6e b npecnn 3aBaneH. 

Te xBtpKHaxa! - opjin KpnnaTn! 

H eTO Hnm 3anjiameH Ben, 
En BpaHa, KonaHe, Dlnn, Benec 
H IlnpoT, 3annap no# Ham Men. 



302 



HaBpe/i ycnex! E aHrjio-(J3peHLi,H 

IIo3Haxa HanieTO „Ha ho>k!" 

A ^necKa, b ConyH - npa3flHOfleHu,H, 

Te nyBar ro h CTpax rn om. 

Ho b Ta3H cnaBHa enonea 

H JIomu,h 6nxa ca etc necT, 

3a 5Khbko neceH KaTO nea, 

rop^ea ce c Tax a3 flHec. 

4. 
He ManKO JIomu,h 6axa acepTBH, 

npn Ctohkobo Stp/io - yBn! 

Te, HomeM TaM, MaKap h MtpTBH, 

Ce 6naT naK - tbh ce mt>jibh. 

H ByKOBO me iiomhhm mie, 

OcTaBHXMe K)Hai],H TaM; 

noKJiOH, He3a6paBHMH - Bne, 

TepoH npe/i HapoflHHH xpaM. 

nOKJIOH, O CHHOBe HapOflHH, 

CaMOOTBepaceHH 6opu,H, 

XBana, noKJiOH npefl SjiaropoflHH 

Bh o6pa3 mhji, XBana, Bernini 

Meac/iy BOHHnnnTe repon 

H 5Khbko 6e e/piH repon, 

3a macTne na neTUHTe moh, 

PaHeH y Hac ocTaHa toh. 

(3amoTO HManie paHeHH, 

Kohto Bpar npoKJieT npnSpa, 

K-bjxe ca kocth hm CTy/ieHH, 



303 



,H,o flnecKa hhkoh He pa36pa). 
HaBpe/i 6e 5Khbko floSpoBOJieu,, 

BtB orbHjrr jieTenie nptB, 

^pyrapHTe ch, xpaSpn jiomcli,, 

YBJiMHanie BaBpe^ etc CTptB. 

^Hec, BepHO, Ha noneTO Sohho 

E/ihh repoM, He e bohhhk, 

Ho kohto 6ne ce aoctohho, 

TepoH e cnaBeH h Bejimc. 

5. 

^Ba ahh cjie/i 6oa Sax Haynnji, 

He 5Khbko e b rtp/iH paHeH, 

Kora Ha ho>k e neT HaSynHJi, 

C KypiuyM 6hji tokko noBaneH. 

Ho HeroBH ^pyrapn CTapn 

To CHenH AOJiy npe3 HOiirra, 

npeBtpsanH ro caHHTapn, 

OcfaMHan So/itp 3apaHTa. 

Tpn Meceua cnefl Tyn He nyBax 

3a Hero hhiho - caM y3Hax, 

,H,o Co(J)Ha Kora HbTyBax, 

He >khb e. C pa/iocT ce BtpHax. 

B nonKa h anefl rqh nojiynnx 

nncMO ot 5KHBKa - nonepic KpnB, 

Ho #a ro nponeTa - cnojiynnx, 

3a TyM cbm ^ocTa -rbpnenHB. 

„no3ApaBJieHHe, - toh 3anoHBa: 

Ot 5Khbko MnneHOB - #o Bac, 



304 



TocnofliiH IIopyHHK, a3H aaa 

J\a Bh 3anHTaM KaK CTe? - A3 

floStp cbm, Ben 03ApaBHx - caivto 

Caa6 ctM, ho cbm b TyM uikojio 

BoeHHO, b Cocjaia HaM-rojieMO, 

TaM aeKa Bne CTe Shjih... 

IlHnieTe mh, aico ce Moace, 

TocnoAHH nopyHHK, KaK CTe Bhh? 

floSpe cbm a3H h Rati Eoace, 

Co 3flpaBe fle ce bh/ihm hhh"... 

6. 

npocbJi3eH ot TyM aoSpoaynmo 

IIhcmo bohhhiiiko - a3 etc no3flpaB 

OTBtpHax ot CBpue paaynmo, 

B SnaroflapHOCT, He cbm 3apaB. 

IiHCMa cbm MHoro noayaaBaa 

A3 OT BOHHHUH RO CQT&, 

H HaM-floSpe cbm H3yaaBaa 

Ot Tax BoiiHHHiKaTa TBra. 

Ho Tyn nncMO He3HaiiHa paaocT 

y MeH cbSh^h - a3 paSpax, 

He b Ta3 HeBHHHa ceacKa Maaaocr, 

HeBoaHO, poaa caM arpax. 

H no macTaHBa noK cayaaaHOCT, 

Bbb CTpoSauaTa b OTnycK Sax, 

IIpH 5KnBKa xoanx - ao 6e3KpaaHOCT 

IU,acTaHB 6e toh, ae ro Baaax. 

IU,acTaHB h a3 Sax, ae pa36apax 



305 



TepoHCKaTa flynia - Tora3, 

B OHHTe My /jo abho npo3npax, 

Herax BejiHKa pa/iocT a3. 

O, kohto b StflemoTo BpeMe 

H3ynaBa Hanrre SoeBe, 

IIpeABHA toh ManKO Heica B3eMe 

H MOHTe CKpOMHH CTHXOBC 

TonoBe Moace na HanpaBjrr 

OrpOMHH KaTO nJiaHHHH, 

Bohhhhh naK me jx& npocnaBaT 

HapO^HH, MHJIH StflHHffli! 

7. 

Otkph ch 5Khbko MeH flyinaTa: 

KaK na^Han b 6oa, KaK y3Han, 

EflBaM bbb Bh/ihh, ne b 6op6aTa 

PaHeH e 6hji. - Cnefl TyM CTpa^aji 

IIo irbTa MHoro. - Hh BO/uma, 

Hh xna6 Tpn jxQna. toh He B3en, 

E^BaM bbb KpacHaTa CTOJiHua, 

Ha TpeTH Meceu, ce cbB3eji. 

Ho nocne onepaurui hmm 

H AOKTopa acecTOK e 6hji, 

Ot nerno Meceu, ro He CHHMan, 

C mji»ko h 3axap ro xpaHHJi. 

Toii MHoro mh npeKa3Ba ome 

3a MHHanHTe TerjiHJia, 

A3 ro npeKBCHax: pa/iocT flome, 

Ce CKpi>6 j\o flnec ne e Sujia. 



306 



Cnefl TyM 3anHTax 3a HeBeHa, 

Ton ce ycMHXHa h Ka3a: 

„III,e AOH/ie Ta cnefl neT-niecT #eHa" 

H pa/iocTHa njrb3Ha cbJi3a. 

IIo jnm,e Sjie/iHO, ho lOHaniKO. 

IIhcmo H3Ba/iH 5Khbko caM. 

(IIhcmo 6e3 njiHK, KaTO coimaniKo) 

IIojiyHHJi Seine ro ot TaM. 

HeBeHa npaTHJia ro Seine 

IIo HeroBH npnaTeji Cnac. 

Toii BceKH A6H ro caM neTenie 

Ho My ro nerox naK h a3: 

8. 

„Moh 5Khbko, xpaSpn moh K)Haico, 

no3ApaB th npamaM HCKpeH, mhji, 

A3 TBoa cbm, MaKap ne CBaKO 

Te Mpa3H MHoro. - Th ch 6hji" 

„y Co(J)hji - me AOH/ia a3H 

Co TpeHO, jx& Te HaBecT», 

CtrnacHH bchhkh ca y Ha3H. 

Ho a3 He me th Tan npocTa", 

„3a AeTO th flo flHecica, 5Khbko, 

E/iho nncMO ch mh nncaji. 

HHMa Tbii CKopo Me 3a6paBH? 

Hjih ch MHoro th CTpa^an, 

„Ta CHJia HeMauie jx& nHHieui 

nncMO Ha BeHa? - Ho npoc™, 

IU,e BHflH KaK Me th oSHnaiu 



307 



Gnefl HeKoii nen. - H3npamaM th" 
„BaJiKaHCKa TeMeHyra. - B MOjrra 

Tpa^HHa a3 a pa3ca/nrx, 
H 6fl» HeA HeM, KaTO Ha/i TBonra 

,H,ynia, b 6oa. - A3 yuinx" 

„3a Te6 qrkh noflaptK, mhjihh, 

Ha coMa b ceno th Kora 

Ca BtpHeni 3#paB, etc bchhkh chjih, 

IU,e ro nojiyHHin. - A cera" 

„npomaBaii, moh Bi,3jno6eH 5Khbko, 

YHHTejiKaTa Seine aom. 

„H,ejiyBKa" - tji Ha KpaM npnSaBH. 

A3 ft ^HKTyBax nienHeniKOM". 

9. 

3aMHHax a3 oie/i #Be He^eini 

IIpe3 Ccxjdhji - 3a nonKa naK. 

Ilo yjiHijHTe, Ben bt,b Sejin 

KOCTIOMH, flaMH, - B TtHtK JiaK 

Kpanica oSyTH - CTbiurr kpotko 

H no-no rjieac^aT Ha CTpaHH... 

KaK onHaTH repMaHnn, c rna/iico 

Jlnne - no3flpaBaBar rbq aceHH. 

Ony^nx ce - a3 Mncnex, caMO 

Ha Sohhoto none CMe c Tax 

^.pyrapn 6jih3kh - paMO c paMO... 

TyK Ta3 cnjiOTeHOCT naK bh/ijix. 

npnBenep Tptraax Ha pa3xoflica, 

J\& 3tpHa CTOJIHHHH3 CB3T. 



308 



(IIpH Bcaica 6tp3a Tan cnoxoflica 

3aKOH 3a MeHe TyM e cbjit). 

B SyjiaBapfl Hap OcBo6oflHTeJi, 

CpemHax ce c flpyrap effnn, 

Bem Ha aceHHTe ou,eHHTeji, 

npnaTeH, yMeH rocnoflHH. 

Ton noHHa irtJiHO onncaHHe 

Ha CTOJIHHHH3 HOB >KHBOT. 

Ilpn bcsko xySaBO cb3flaHHe 

Mh flaBanie ^oStp „othot". 

H ^BOHHa MOHTa 6e Haoia/ia: 

3a BcaKa xySaBa aceHa - 

J\a mh pa3Ka3BaT, 6e3 Harpa^a, 

HcTopHHKa, noHe, e#Ha. 

10. 

IIIyM, Sjiscbk npa3HHneH, ^BnaceHHe... 

3a6paBHx a3, ne e BOHHaL. 

Ha Bcaica icpanica H3KymeHHe! ... 

)KeHH h nponeT... Ho e/pia 

TaM cejiamca, cpe# cb»t pa3KonieH, 

KaKBO JIH TtpCH?... TliBKaB CTaH, 

Momhhckh KptCT, ho 3#paB, npHCTerHaT 

Bt>b xySaB cencKH Hep cyKMaH... 

HeBeHa Seine TyM - ^o Hea 

BoiiHHK C SaCTOH - caM 5Khbko moh! 

CneA KtpBaBaTa enonea 

IU,acTJiHB 6e AHecKa h 3#paB toh. 

npH CT-bKJieHHTe ABe BHTpHHH 5) 



309 



C nopTpeTH - cnpaxa Te h toh 

Pa3npaBanie M, ne c toahhh 

TaKa ctost h Heivta koh 

J\& Kynn... A3 rn CTHrHax TaMO. 

H cSoroM B3ex c flpyrapa moh. 

IIo3Ha Me 5Khbko h c naKaT 

HeBeHa chjiho SirbCHa toh... 

„0, TocnoflHH IIopyHHK, Bne 

IlaK bbb OTnycK, e, #o6pe aohijih! 

Ha, BHaere, cSpaxMe ce Ben Hne 

H Ha pa3xo/iKa CMe nonuiH"... 

11. 

Pa3npaBH 5Khbko, ne HeBeHa, 

C 6ama h, Tpn ahh KaK ca TyK. 

H b ceno 3HaaT, ne ro#eHa 

E tji 3a Hero. - ,H,Hec Shjih 

3a nptB ni>T Ha pa3xoflica ^Baivia, 

Ben flOKTopa ce ctrjiacmi, 

Pa3rjieAanH rpa/ja h xpaMa 

TojieM. - Toil tbh ce yMopnn! 

A3 rn H3npaTHX naic ^o „napKa" 

Ha K)HKepcKOTO hikojio. - TaM 

C xySaBaTa ch ^pyrapica, 

noTBHan 5Khbko b nap h nnaM, 

Ot6h ce b Ta3 rpafftuia Hy^Ha, 

Tue a3 cbm MHoro caM Median, 

npn KaHapaTa, r/ieTO CTy/iHa 

Bo^a Tene, ot r/ieTO ujiji 



310 



Epa/ja ce BHac/ia... 3paK nocneflHH 
EflBaM npo3npanie Tora3... 

JloSyra, ' rpa/piHaptT 6e#HH, 
KoroTO nocne nHTax a3, 

E 6hji b CBoa mhji uBeTapHHK 

H bh^jui KaK b cjiaSn MpaK, 

IIoa xySaBHa TaM jiHCTaK, 

Ce cnpenH MJia^HTe h KaK 

IIIenTejiH ch, ho b 3axnaca, 

3a6paBHJiH 3a xopcKH onyx: 

„Ha ABa cnaBea ^BaTa rnaca, 
CTapHKa Ka3a mh - a3 nyx: 

12. 

„HeBeHO, no e xySaB, Hann, 

BanKaHCKH Hanin po#eH KpaM? 

Ax, 5Khbko, jx&, ho th Kora jih 

IU,e ce 3aB-bpHeiH, Eocnofl 3Han"... 

„0, CKopo - OTnycK a3 me B3eMa, 

HeBeHO, JinSe, HaKaM mch! 

Eama mh MHoro Hemp HeMa, 

Ho aom e ce naK ypefleH"... 

„Th, BeHO, HMani chhh, ny/iHH, 

Ohh KaT HanieTO He6e ! 

IU,e rpeaT Te b MHHyrH Tpy/jHH, 

Ha T03, koh b 60a m>pBH 6e". 

„KocaTa th y KaTO CBHJia, 

Ta HMa SjiecbK HeacH03JiaT! 

A3 pa/iocTHO c Hen 6hx oSBHJia 



311 



K)HaKa MHJIH, XBtpKOBaT". 

„JlHii,e th HMani, KaTO po3a, 
CTpaHH - Soacyp, ycTa - Kopan! 

JlHue me cryma npn yrpo3a 
,H,o T03 koh ctpue mh e OKpan. 
„CHaraTa th e cnpoHHa, BeHO, 

KaTO SanKaHCKaTa ena. 

K)HaniKO Teno, b KptB oSjicho, 

IU,e CTonna c Hea a3 ... eira"... 



„IIIyM no/i jiHCTaKa Ben npecTaHa, 

Ka3a mh rpa^HHap-bT CTap. 

Cnefl Meceu, HMax a3 noKaHa 

3a CBaTSa; cnefl rbsi - ia>pna b #ap. 



EEJIE)KKH 

1. Ta3H noeMa e ny6jiHicaBaHa b e^Ha MHoro pa^ica h OT^aBHa 3a6paBeHa 
KHHra: EoneB, M. (1916). Eouhu cnoMenu (Enoc u nupuKa). CocJDiia: nenaTHima Hb. 
K. Bo>khhob. OcBeH noeMaTa „>Khbko h HeBeHa" KHiiraTa ctatp^a cjie^HHTe 
noerHHHH TBop6n: „PHJia h Illap", „Ctohkobo 6tpfl,o", „IIhcmo Ha 6ohhoto none", 
„Ha BptniKa Hyica", „IIpeAHyBCTBHe Ha ... ", „Hpen 3afiHap", IIpera3BaHeT0 Ha 
TnMOKa", „B 3afiHap", „CpeiHa", „BoHHHnnca neceH", „B 6oa", ByKOBO, 19 
OKTOMBpn 1915 r.", „BeJiHKOfl,yuiHe", „IToflnopyHHK PanicoB J\", „rpo6", „IIlyMT>T 
Ha TnMOKa", „Xhmh Ha Cticoa", „Xhmh Ha JIomhh", „IIpe3 bohhhihkh5i rpo6", 
„ITpefl BOHHHHiKHa rpo6", „Ha EaGpneji ,3,'AHyHHHo", „Ha Hb. Ba30B", „IIpoKJiaTHa 
t3m", „Pnjia b CHflr h 6jiacbK", „H3 flHeBHHica Ha...", „XajiOBCicaTa ropa", „Pajio", 
„Kt>m Hapofla". KHHraTa e c nocBemeHHe Ha aBTopa: „B naMeT Ha na^HajiHTe npe3 
Ta3H BOHHa repoH ot 15-h nexcvreH JIomckh nojiic". 



312 



2. ABToptT, M. ToqeB, e nopynHK, KOMaHanp Ha 4-a nexoTHa poTa Ha 15-h 
nexoTeH JIomckh nojiK. 3a o^HHepcioia cbcraB Ha nojiica npe3 IltpBaTa CBeTOBHa 
BOHHa b>k. MycaKOB, H. (1939). IJojiyeeKoeHUMm m>m Ha 15-u nexomen JIomcku 
nojiK. Co<J)Ha: BoeHHOH3fl,aTejiCKH (Jdoha,. 

3. CHHMKaTa e ot (})OTOKO.neKHHaTa Ha II. KojieB. 

4. CHHMKaTa ca na3H b c. HynpeHe (Hm ToHHHa - inatonina@abv.bg ). 

5. OoTorpatJ) KapacToaHOB (6. aBT.). 

6. JIo6yTa - npaicop Ha e^HH crap rpa/niHap ot Bochhoto ynHJiHine (6. 
aBT.). 










I 




DOflEHH 



[jinoc \, ij jiui'iuiAj 



rsplLk ill* K*n Frf<M 

grv lj-l .ICKtl'l GWiHt 





C£*Hfl 
nSlATHHli* HA (ill. i\. r.G/VAU'm^- 




313 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal for Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume 1, Number 3, 2010 



Research 



HCTOPHKl>T fl-P TAHHO IJEHOB OT 
CEJIO EOHHHIJA 



AjieKcaHAtp MOIHEB 



Abstract. This is a narrative about the life and activity of Dr. G. 
Tzenoff (1870, Boynitsa at Kula - 1949, Berlin). Dr. Tzenoff is a historian 
with a dissertation from the Berlin University (1900). The origin of the 
Bulgarians is the main topic of his research. His points of view on this 
problem drew down both official historians and politicians' anger upon Dr. 
Tzenoff s personality. Dr. Tzenoff s achievements in the field of history 
continue being disapproved. 

Keywords: Gantcho Tzenoff, history, Bulgarians' origin 



BnorpacJDHHHHTe ^amm 3a ^-p TaHno IleHOB, c kohto pa3nojiaraMe, 
ca cpaBHHTejiHO ockb/ihh. 3HaeM, ne e po^eH Ha 06. 06. 1870 r. b c. EoHHHua, 
KyncKa OKOJina. 3aBi>pniBa HCTopna npe3 1894 r. b Co4>hhckhji yHHBepcHTeT. 
PaSoTH b KyjiTypHna OT^eji Ha BoeHHOTO MHHHCTepcTBO. IIpe3 1900 r. 
3an(HTaBa Sjiecramo ^oicropcKa flHcepTauHa B BepjiHHCKHa yHHBepcHTeT. 
OTToraBa acHBee h paSoTH npe/piMHO b BepjiHH, kb/icto nySnHKyBa 



314 



MHoacecTBO Tpy/iOBe no StJirapcica HCTopna Ha hcmckh h 6i>JirapcKH e3HK. 
Cnopefl AOCTOBepHH namm e nonHHan Ha 25. 09. 1949 r. b BepjiHH. 

flocTaT'bHHO e HOBeK j\a. ce 3ano3Hae c 6H6jiHorpa(|)HHHHTe ^aHHH 3a 
Tpy/iOBeTe Ha fl-p TaHno U,eHOB, 3a jxa. pa36epe, ne toh e 6hji qrhr ot Haii- 
BH/iHHTe StJirapcKH HCTopHu,H ot ntpBaTa nojiOBHHa Ha XX BeK. TyK e 
AOCTaTtHHO jx& cnoMeHeM ^HcepTaHHjrra My „Koh noflnanH MocKBa b 1812 
r.?" H3Aa/ieHa npe3 1900 r. b HaynHaTa nope/uma HeropHnecKH CTy/iHH, h 
MOHorpa(|)HHTe 3a nporoxo^a h paHHaTa HCTopna Ha 6i>JirapHTe "Die 
Abstammung der Bulgaren und die Urheimat der Slaven" h "Geschichte der 
Bulgaren und der anderen Siidslaven", HanenaTaHH b npecTHacHOTO 
H3AaTejiCTBO Walter de Gruyter & Co. (1930 h 1935 r.). 2) 

Tpy/jHO e b hskojiko pe^a ^a ce oSoSinn ^ciioto Ha ^-p TaHno 
U,eHOB. IU,e ch no3BOJia jx& OTSeneaca, ne toh He e oueHeH no ^octohhctbo ot 
0(J)HLi,HajiHaTa StJirapcica HCTopnnecKa Hayica KaKTO npe^H, TaKa h cjiqjx 1944 

T. 06BHH3BaH e B "niOBHHH31>M" H AOpH "(J3aniH3'faM". BCbinHOCT, HerOBOTO 

poAOJuoSne HHKora He My e npennjio jx& nnme HCTopHnecKHre ch CBHHHeHHa 

TOHHO H oSeKTHBHO, 6a3HpaHKH Ce Ha aBTeHTHHHH H3BOpH. C TOBa TOH 

npeB , b3xo>KAa CBonre onoHeHTH ot cjiaBaHO(J)HJicKaTa HCTopHnecKa niKOJia, 
kohto necTO nojiHTH3HpaT HayHHHTe cnopoBe. 

^Hec HMeTO Ha TaHno LJeHOB npn/ioSHBa Bee no-mnpoKa 
nonyjiapHOCT b cpeflnre Ha H3CJieflOBaTenHTe-CTapo6'bJirapHCTH. 
^OKa3aTejiCTBO 3a TOBa ca ronepnaHHre rapaacH Ha hobhtc H3flaHHa Ha 
HeroBaTa MOHorpa(j)HJi "KpoBaTOBa BtJirapna h noKptCTBaHeTO Ha 
StJirapHre" (BTopo H3#aHHe: IIjiobahb, 1998; TpeTO H3#aHHe: 2004 r.) h Ha 
ocHOBonojiaramna My Tpy/i "IIpoH3xo/rbT Ha StJirapnTe h HananoTO Ha 
StJirapcKaTa fltpacaBa h irbpKBa" (BTopo, (Jdotothtiho H3#aHHe: BapHa, 2002). 
OcBeH Te3H KHHrn HacKopo 6e npenenaTaHO b MantK rapaac h 
npoH3BefleHHeTO My 'XyHHTe, kohto ocHOBaxa StnrapcicaTa /rtpacaBa, 

TeXHHST npOH3XOA H T3XHOTO XpHCTHJIHCTBO " (BTOpO H3flaHHe: Co(J)Ha, 



315 



2002), kosto CT>mo ce npeBtpHa b 6H6jiHorpa(|)CKa pa^KOCT. 




Onr. 1. noprpeT Ha #-p TaHno UeHOB 

He Mora jx& OTMHHa h (J3aKTa, ne b hjikoh cpe^n n&jx hmcto h 
TBopnecTBOTO Ha #-p TaHHO UeHOB npofltJiacaBa jx& TerHe HernacHO "Ta6y". 
HecTO onHTHTe 3a peaSHJiHTanna Ha HeroBOTO jxqjio ce nocpeiHaT c OTKpnTa 
CbnpoTHBa. KffliraTa "BtsKptCBamaTa HCTopna Ha ^-p TaHno Uchob" 
npeAH3BHKa OTBeTHa peaKHna b cpeflnre Ha 0(J)HHHajiHaTa HcropHHecica 
Hayica. HcropHicbT H. IIpoflaHOB nySjiHKyBa Ha CTpaHHHHTe Ha 



316 



aBTopHTeTHOTO cmicafflie "HcTopHnecKH nperjiefl" "pa3rpOMaBama" 
peu,eH3Ha, ko»to Ha npaKTHKa He onoHnpauie Ha (J)aKTHTe h ^aHHHTe, 
H3HeceHH b KHHraTa, a CTHrHa p,o onnr 3a ncnxonopTpeT Ha TaHno H,eHOB. } 

Ta3H jiHHHa Ha ^e3HH(J3opMaHHji 6e npofltJiaceHa b CKoponma 
ny6jiHKau,Ha Ha TeoprH 3ejieHropa BtB b. "168 naca". B Hea toh pa3Ka3Ba 3a 
ctfleSmui npouec, kohto TaHno LJeHOB bo/hi cpemy npeflCTaBHTenH Ha 
0(|)HLi,HajiHaTa Suirapcica HCTopHnecica HayKa b jihhcto Ha npo(j)ecopHTe 
rieTtp Hhkob h IleTbp MyracJDHHeB. Abtop^t HaMeKBa h 3a "HaHHCTiarre" 
B-b3rjieflH Ha TaHno UeHOB h ro npeflCTaBa effsa jih He KaTO poAOHanajiHHK Ha 
"aHTHHayHHH" TeopHH 3a npoH3xoAa Ha StJirapHre. 

CtmecTBeH eneMem - ot aTaKHTe cpemy TaHno LJeHOB e SyKBanHOTO 

„H3TpHBaHe" Ha flOKTOpCKaTa My THTJia, K03TO JIHnCBa H B HOBOTO (2010 r.) 

H3AaHHe Ha aKafleMHHHHa cnpaBOHHHK "EtJirapcKH hctophhh": TaM aBToptT 
IleTbp Hojiob noBTapa HeTOHHaTa h cbBceM ocicbflHa HH(J3opMaLi,HJi 3a LJchob 
ot npeflHHiHHTe H3flaHHa, unncBaT HanenaraHHTe Ha hcmckh e3HK h 
H3AaA6HH b 3ana/iHa EBpona Tpy/iOBe, Haiwa hhiho 3a jieiCHHHTe My b 
BepjiHHCKHa yHHBepcHTeT npe3 30-Te toahhh Ha XX BeK. Cjucani bchhko 
OHOBa, KoeTO 6e nySjimcyBaHO npe3 nooieflHHTe ^eceTHJieTHa 3a EaHno 
H,eHOB, e 6e3 HHKaKBa ctohhoct 3a HauiaTa "o(J3HHH03Ha" HCTopHnecica 
6Ho6H6jiHorpa(|)Ha, Bee ome noBTapama maMnH OTnpeflH 50-60 toakhh. 

3a OHemcaTa Ha Earno LJeHOB KaTO yneH e BaacHO ,zja ce B3eMe 
npeABH/i, ne Han-cbmecTBeHaTa nacT ot ^OKTopcicaTa My ^HcepTaHHJi He 
caMO e Snjia nySnHKyBaHa b nope^HHaTa Historishe Studien (HcropHHecKH 
CTy/iHH); KpaTtK HeiiH pe(J)epaT (Ha 35 nenaTHH CTpaHHHH) e 6hji H3fla#eH B 
OT/iejiHa Spouiypa. Cnefl 65 toakhh, npe3 1965 r., Ta3H Sponiypa e 
npeH3AaAena (Jdotothhho b H3BecTHaTa cepna „Kpayc penpHHTc" Ha 
H3flaTejiCTBO Kpayc. 5) E^Ba jih #pyr StnrapcKH hctophk mo ace j\& ce noxBann 
c TaKOBa npH3HaHne 3a npnHOCHTe h aBTopnTeTa ch. 

IIpHBeacflaM Te3H npHMepn c e/piHCTBeHaTa Hen jx& noicaaca kojiko 



317 



TpyflHO ce npoMeHjrr ffbJiroroflHiHHHTe CTepeoTmiH b e#Ha KOHcepBaTHBHa 
cpe^a h kojiko SaBHO ch npoSnBa hbt HCTHHaTa. ITpoHecbT Ha npoMaHaTa 
oSane e 3anoHHan h cnope/i MeH e HeoSpaTHM. Mjia^Hre hctophhh h 
jnoSirrejiH Ha HCTopHjrra Bee noBene me oSptmaT norae/ia ch icbm 
3a6paHeHHTe flocicopo tcmh. OcoSeHO noKa3aTejiHH b TOBa OTHonieHHe ca 
AHCKycHHTe b HHrepHeT. ^eceTKHTe yracTHHHH cboSoaho oSmchjit MHeHHa 
3a npoH3xoAa Ha StJirapHre, H3#HpBaT h nySnHKyBaT H3Bopn h oScbacflar 
Haii-BaacHHTe tcmh Ha StJirapcicaTa HCTopHorpadpHa. E/jho ot HaM- 
cnoMeHaBaHHTe HMeHa b Te3H HHTepHeT-cnopoBe e hmcto Ha TaHno LJchob. 
fleceTHJieTHjrra Ha 3a6paBa He ca ycneJiH js,a ro H3TpH»T ot CB3HaHHeTO Ha 
MHCJiemHTe h TtpcemH StJirapn. ^Efrrec MJia/iOTO noKOJieHne ro npeoTKpHBa, 
KaTO ^ontJiBa h /iopa3BHBa TeopHHre My ot raeflHa TOHKa Ha flHeiHHHa rqh. 

Thesen. 
I. 

Cyriilus und Methodius sind nicht Griechen, smidern 

Bulgaren. 

II. 
Die U liter ordnuntr clc* KiirsciMi von liulj^iirien u liter 
den Sultan ist reiiie L-'unn ohnc Jiihalt. 

lit. 
Dor Urand von Moskau hat auf den Vnrliiuf drs l-VM- 
zugfes ini Jnhrc 1812 cintm sehr ^ering^cji Kinfluss jjehabt. 



Onr. 2. Te3Hre b flHcepTaHHjrra Ha T. IlmoB, KaKTO ca npeflCTaBeHH 
b pedpepaTa Tzenoff, G. Wer hat Moskau im Jahre 1812 in Brand gestecktl E. 

Ebering, Berlin, 1900. 

HnrepecHO e #a ce OTSeneacn, ne KyncKHjrr KpaM e flan Ha B-bJirapna 
h onje e^HH H3CJieflOBaTeji Ha /rpeBHHre StJirapn - nncaTejia Hop/iaH BtJineB 



318 



(1924-1998), hhhto KopeHH ci>mo ca ot c. EoHmma. HsraeacAa, ne >KHTejiHTe 
Ha Bhahhckhs pernoH h KOHKpeTHO Ha KyncKHa KpaM hocjit b ce6e ch e^Ha 
ocoSeHO CHJiHa nyBCTBHrejiHOCT kbm MHHanoTO Ha B-bJirapna. He cnyqaHHO h 
H,eHOB, Kaicro h BtJineB, neero cnoMeHaBaT b CBonre Tpy/iOBe 3a poflHHa ch 
Kpaii h 3a HeroBaTa 3a6ejie>KHTejiHa HCTopna. 

IU,e npnnoMHa, ne cnopefl poMencKHa hctophk Hop/iaH cneA 
CMtprra Ha ATHJia h MeayiyocoSHHHTe b XyHCKaTa HMnepna b paMoHa Ha 
KacTpa MapTHC (ah. Kyna) ce 3acejiBaT capMaTH h u,QMaujjpn. Te ce 
ycraHOBJiBaT b 6jih30Ct ^o nocejieHHjrra Ha Bene acHBeemn b paMoHa xyHH. 
IlaK b to3h pernoH e jioKanH3HpaHa h KpenocTra XyHOH (Bepojrmo c. 
CTaBepu,H, ILneBeHCKo). Te3H flaHHH noKa3BaT, ne KyncKHjrr KpaM h ^HeniHa 
CeBepo3ana/iHa BtJirapna KaTO hjuio ca 3aeManH H3KHK)HHTejiHO BaacHO 

M3CTO BtB BOeHHO-aAMHHHCTpaTHBHaTa CHCTCMa KaKTO Ha PnMCKaTa, TaKa H 

Ha ATHJiOBaTa HMnepna. IIo to3h noBOfl Hop^aH BtJineB e 3anHcan b cboji 
Ahcbhhk: "IIpH pa3KpHBaHe Ha KacTena (KacTpa MapTHC - 6. A.M.) 
HaMepHJiH e#Ha CTeHa, kojito BOflena Ha/iony KbM flona. TptraanH no CTeHaTa 

H OTKpHJIH HOB KaCTCJI - CblUO C HeTHpH KyjIH. CTpyBa MH Ce, He pHMJISHHTe 

ca BHac/iajiH b Kyna ronaMa CTpaTeranecKa Bi^MoacHOCT: KaTO HMaT 3aBoa Ha 
^yHaB h KaTO orpafljrr cyniaTa, jx& ce o6pa3yBa ronaM octpob, /io6pe 

3aiHHTeH, B KOHTO JX& Ce HaMHpaT MHOrO BOHCKH, TOTOBH J\& OTH^aT BIB 

bchhkh nocoKH. Eto 3apa#H KaKBO ATHJia e pa3pyniHJi Han-Hanpe^ KacTpa 
MapTHC, CJieA kocto e KptCTHJi Ha CBoe HMe hobhji rpa/i - ATHJia, npeBe/ieH 
ot TypHHre Ha A^HJine, Ta na HHe npn OcBoSoayjeHHeTO He CMe 3HaejiH 
bchhko TOBa h CMe H3MHCJIHJIH "Kyna", noHeace e CTbpnana, KaKTO h cera 
CTtpHH, e^Ha ot KyjiHTe." 



319 




cDHr. 3. KpenocTTa KacTpa MapTHC b rp. Kyjia 



320 



HISTORISCHE STUDIEN 



TIlOJlflWTLLCHT 



C. EBESING 



Wer hat Moskau ira Jahre 1812 
in Brand gosteekt? 



Gantscho Tienoff 



-&*■ 



Hrrltn WOO. 

T«rl«r iui E. EhprLac. 



Onr. 4. 3arjiaBHHTe CTpaHHu,H Ha KHHraTa Ha T. U,eHOB Wer hat Moskau im 

Jahre 1812 in Brand gestecktl ro^a^em b nope/ninaTa Historische Studien Ha 

H3flaTejiCTBOTO E. Ebering, Berlin, 1900. 



HanbJiHO oSacHHMO e, 3amp to3h pernoH c MHoroSpoHHHre ch h 
BHyuiHTejiHH apxeojiorHnecKH naMeTHHHH jx&jxq Ha StJirapcicaTa HcropHHecica 
HayKa TaHno U,eHOB. BepoaTHO caMaTa aTMOC^epa, HacHreHa c jiereHflH 3a 
OT/iaBHa OTMHHanH BpeMeHa h apxeojiorHnecKH ocTaHKH, e npeApa3nojiarajia 
MJia^na LJeHOB k^m TbpceHHa b nocoKa Ha /rpeBHOTO hh MHHano. Moace 6h 
TyK ce KpnaT nacT ot npHHHHHre toh #a H36epe HeropHHecKOTO o6pa30BaHHe 
h npo(J3ecHa. 

CBH^eTejiCTBO 3a HapacHanna Hnrepec kbm Tpy/iOBeTe h jiHHHOCTTa 
Ha TaHHO H,eHOB e nySjimcyBaHeTO Ha cnoMeHaTaTa no -rope OT^ejiHa KHHra, 
nocBeTeHa Ha HeroBHa jkhbot h TBopnecTBO. Ta nocTaBH othobo Ha ^neBeH 
pe# BtnpocHTe, kohto T. U,eHOB pa3pa6oTBa ^eTaHJiHO b MHoroSpoHHHre ch 



321 



Tpy^OBe: mccthhji (aBTOXTOHeH) nporoxo/i Ha StJirapHre Ha EanKaHCKHa 
nonyocTpoB, tjixhoto paHHO (onje b I Beic) xpHCTHaHH3HpaHe, Hepa3pHBHaTa 
Bpi>3Ka Ha ^peBHHTe StJirapn c am-HHHaTa KyjiTypHa Tpa^Hinui Ha 
EaracaHHTe. Te3H BtnpocH CTaHaxa oSeicr Ha #HCKycHH b en. "Abhtoxoji", 
"H3BecTHa Ha B-bJirapcKaTa Op/ia" h "Hctophhcckh nperjiefl". Bee noBene ce 
Hanara MHeHHeTO, ne b cbohtc Te3H ,zj-p TaHno LJeHOB e 6hji HectMHeHO 
npaB, a H3Ka3aHHre ot Hero CTaHOBHma HaMHpaT noTBtpac/ieHHe h b 
H3CJieABaHH3Ta Ha cbBpeMeHHHre StJirapcKH apxeoji03H, jiHHrBHCTH, 
eTHOJi03H, eTHorpa(J3H h yneHH ot Apyrn cneHHanHOCTH. 

TaHHO LJeHOB e H3BecTeH etc CBOjrra hccthoct h ^oSpocbBecTHOCT 
npn paSoTaTa c H3BopnTe, BHCOKaTa ch e3HKOBa noflroTOBKa h HCTopHnecica 

epyflHU,HJl H KOMSHHHpaHeTO Ha flaHHH OT pa3JIHHHH KJIOHOBe Ha 

xyMaHHTapncTHKaTa - eTHorpacJDHa, jiHHrBHCTHKa, HCTopna Ha pejinrnHTe h 
Ap. Ton o6o6maBa CBoeTO BHac/iaHe 3a HCTopHnecicaTa HayKa etc cjie^HHTe 
AyMH: "HcTopnaTa e HH^yKTHBHa HayKa, kojito noHHBa Ha 4>aiCTH, a He Ha 
MHeHHa - Koero He noHHBa Ha (J3aKTH - He e HCTopna". H onje: "HcTopHjrra e 
c6op ot CHCTeMaTH3HpaHH (jjaKTH, a He c6op ot MHeHHa." HivieHHO TyK ce 
Kpne CHJiaTa Ha HeroBHTe HayHHH TtpceHna - TBtp/iaTa onopa Ha (j)aKTHTe, a 
He Ha t. Hap. "Haynmi aBTopHTeTH". B Tpy/iOBeTe ch TaHno LJeHOB ce 
npH^tpaca kt>m ycTaHOBeHHTe ome npe3 XIX b. HayHHH hopmh. ILraaTa 
HayHHa flOKyMeHrauHJi ot HHTHpaHHre npe^HMHO rptHKH h jiaTHHCKH H3Bopn 
ce npe/iaBa b opnrHHajiHHa hm bh/i, 6e3 npeBOfl, KoeTO npeflnojiara BHCOKa 
npo(j)ecHOHajiHa noflroTOBKa y HHTaTejia. TaKaBa noflroTOBKa ^opn ^nec 
npHTeacaBaT ManuHHa cneuHajiHCTH. 

IU,e npHBe/ieM caMO hjikojiko npnisiepa, kohto HJiiocTpHpaT 
cnoMeHaTOTO TB-bp/ieHHe, ne nRewie Ha #-p TaHno LJeHOB HaMHpaT 
noTBtpac/ieHHe b Tpy^OBeTe Ha pe/pma H3aneflOBaTejiH ot no-HOBO Bpeivte. 



322 



GESGHICHTE DER BULGAREN 

UND 

DER ANDEREN SUDSLAVEN 

VON DER 

ROMISCHEN EROBERUNG DER BALKANHALB1NSEL AN 

BIS ZUM ENDE DES NEUNTEN JAHRHUNDERTS 

VON 

DR. GANTSCHO TZENOFF 

Liim ah nEp uNtvmsirJiT inuH 



BERLIN UND LEIPZIG 

WALTER DE GRUYTER & GO. 

VORMAU C J. HNBMH VKKLAQSHAJtDLUttG — J, CUmXTAC VTKIAGS- 

MWWBH — g iomc man — iau, j. ncun — vcrr * amr. 
'93S 



Onr. 5. 3arjiaBHaTa CTpaHHiia Ha KHHraTa Ha I\ UeHOB Geschichte der 

Bulgaren und der anderen Sudslaven, H3fla#eHa npe3 1935 r. ot npecTHacHOTO 

H3flaTejiCTB0 Walter De Gruyter & Co. 

TaicaBa e HeroBaTa xHnoTe3a, ne Cb.Cb. KnpHJi h Mctoahh ca 
H3Bi>pHiBajiH CBOjrra nponoBeAHHHecKa ^eHHOCT He b «flHeniHa HexcKa 
MopaBa», a b Haicoe ot oSnacTHTe no #0JiHHaTa Ha EtJirapcica MopaBa hjih b 
MaKe/iOHHa. ToBa toh nnuie npe3 1910 r. h 3a Te3H cboh TBtp/ieHHa e 
noAJioaceH Ha TBtp^e arpecHBHa KpnTHKa. Ho npe3 2000 r. IleTep K)xac 
(yHrapcKH yneH SuirapHcr) nySjimcyBa CBOjrra MOHorpa(J)Ha «Khphji h 



323 



MeTOflHH b StJirapcicaTa MopaBHa», } b kosto c aoboah noflKpenn 
HanncaHOTO ot TaHno LJeHOB 90 toahhh no-paHO. Baamo e jx& OTSeaeacHM, 
ne IleTep K)xac He e Hen KHHrnre Ha U,eHOB, a ce 6a3npa Ha CBBBpnieHO 
Apyrn (npeAHMHO yHrapcKn) H3Bopn. 

EflHH OT OCHOBHHTe MOTHBH B HayHHOTO TBOpHCCTBO Ha T. LJeHOB e 

CTpeMeacbT jx& noKaace roaaMaTa 6jih30Ct h appn HaemnHHOCTTa Meacay 
ApeBHO TpaKHHCKHa e3HK h e3HKa Ha CTapnre StJirapn. B HananoTO Ha XX 
BeK HH^oeBponeHCKaTa h naaeoSaaKaHCKaTa jiHHrBHCTHKa npaBaT CBOHTe 
ntpBH CT"bnKH h LJeHOB pa3nojiara cbc cpaBHHTejiHO orpaHHaeH MaTepnan, 
npeAHMHO TonoHHMHH h cbBceM MantK Spoil TpaKHHCKH HaanncH. ,H,Hec 
HaTpynaHHaT neKCHKajieH MaTepnan Ha apeBHO TpaKHHCKH e 3HaaHreaHO no- 
oSninpeH, a ctmecTByBaT h aBTopnTeTHH rocaeaBaHHa Btpxy e3HKa Ha 
TpaKHTe. Te3H rocaeaBaHHa noKa3BaT yaHBHreaHaTa 6jih30Ct Meacay 
TpaKHHCKHa h SBarapcKHa e3HK. Ome npe3 1939 r. SBaemnaT aKaa. 
Baa/iHMHp TeoprHeB npeBeacaa HaanncH Btpxy 3aaTHHa npBCTeH ot 
E3epoBO. Ot npeBoaa My HayaaBaMe, ne TpaKHTe ca H3noji3BanH cbmoTO 

JIHHHO MeCTOHMeHHe 3a ntpBO JIHU,e, QJ\. HHCJIO, KaKTO H HHe, flHeiHHHTe 

StJirapn, - «a3», a cbiho h npeaaora «flo», npHreacaTeaHOTO MeCTOHMeHHe 
«moh», raarojia sup-ta, OTroBapam Ha CTapoStarapcKOTO CBn («cna»). B 
KHHraTa ch «E3hkbt Ha TpaKHTe» aKaa. HBaH flypnaaHOB cnoMeHaBa 
AeceTKH TpaKHHCKH AyMH, kohto cnopea Hero HMaT napaneji b 
CTapoStJirapcKH, cpeaHoSBarapcKH h HOBoStnrapcKH. Ot Hea pa36npaMe, ne 
HMeTO Ha TpaKHHCKOTO SoacecTBO Sabazios (Ca6a3HH) e cpoaHO etc 
CTapoStarapcKOTO CBOBO^B («CBo6oaeH»), TpaKo^pnrHHCKOTO SoacecTBO 
Semele ce CBBp3Ba cbc CTapoStarapcKOTO 3EMJTB («3eMa»), T.e. 3eMeae e 
6naa SornHa Ha 3eMaTa - «MaiiKa - 3eMa». HMeTO Ha TpaKHHCKOTO naeMe 
Oapncn aKaa. ^ypH/iaHOB CBBp3Ba cbc CTapoStarapcKOTO BBI^PA KaTO 
TOTeMHO Ha3BaHHe, KaKBOTO BepoaTHO e h hmcto Ha TpaKHHCKOTO naeMe 
SeSpmcH ot bebrt «6o6bp», KoeTO e hachtkhho cbc CTapoSBarapcKaTa ayMa 



324 



3a SoStp. ToBa e caMO Manica nacT ot TBtp/ie HHTepecHHTe cbOTBeTCTBHa, 
kohto aKafl. ^ypH/iaHOB npHBeac/ja. TpaSBa jx& HMaMe npe# bh/i, ne Bee ome 
npe/iCTOH OTKpHBaHeTO Ha no-oSninpHH TeKCTOBe Ha TpaKHHCKH, KoeTO me 
hh no3BOJiH jx& HanpaBHM ho-tohhh 3aianoHeHHa, ho h Ha HacToaiHHa eTan e 
acHo: r. LJeHOB e HMan cepno3HH ocHOBaHHa 3a TBtpfleHHjrra ch. KaHa/iCKHjrr 
yneH ot StJirapcKH nporoxo/i Teoprn Cothpob 3amHraBa cxBamaHeTO, ne 
TpaKHTe h StJirapHTe ca e^HH h cbihh Hapofl. Ton nnuie aneflHOTo: 
«cDyHflaMeHTanHHjrr Btnpoc kojiko ca Shjih «HaxjiyBamHTe» oiaBaHH h 
kojiko MecTHHTe TpaKH, HHKora He e 6hji oScbac^aH. Ta3H MaTepna e Snna 
flonbJiHHTejiHO 3aM"brjieHa c H3JiH3aHeTO (b^b BneHa npe3 1957 r.) Ha 
KHHraTa Ha J\. ^.eneB «Die Thrakischen Sprachreste», 9) kojito noHHBa Ha 
npeAnocTaBKaTa, ne b ^eHCTBHrejiHOCT TpaKHHCKHjrr e3HK 4>aKTHHecKH e 
H3He3Han. Beuie Bpeivte, KoraTO a3 ctmo CMjrrax Taica. Bene He. 10) 

Hexa ce cnpeM HaKpaTKO h Ha #Ba npnivtepa ot oSjiacTTa Ha 
apxeojiornaTa, kohto, cnopefl MeH, apKO fleMOHCTpnpaT npaBOTaTa Ha #-p 
TaHHO H,eHOB. 

Ma/iapcKHjiT KyjiTOB KOMnneKC - cpeflnmeTO Ha ^peBHO StJirapcKaTa 
npe/ixpHCTHaHCKa pejinrna e nocTpoeH Btpxy CTapo TpaKHHCKO CBeTHJinme 
ot V - II b. np. Xp. h Ha npaKTHKa e Tpy/jHO jx& pa3rpaHHHHM TpaKHHCKHTe ot 
ApeBHO StJirapcKHTe KyjiTOBH crpa/jH. 

HeiHO noBene, H3CJieflOBaTejiH KaTO K. IIlKopnHJi, J\. Kp-bH^acaBOB, 
J\. II. ^HMHTpoB, r. BanacneB ca Ha mhchhc, ne CKanHHjrr penecj) Ha 
Ma/japcKHa kohhhk npeflCTaBJiaBa H3o6paaceHHe Ha TpaKHHCKna 6or - 
kohhhk. ToBa oScToaTejiCTBO ^OKa3Ba reHeTHHHaTa Bpi>3Ka Meac/iy 
TpaKHHCKaTa h apcbho StnrapcKaTa pejinrna. 

,Hpyr HHTepeceH (JDaKr: Han-rojieMHaT penecj), H3o6pa3JiBaiH 

TpaKHHCKHS KOHHHK, e OTKpHT HMCHHO B CTapaTa StJirapCKa CTOJIHHa 

IIjiHCKa. IIo flyMHTe Ha apxeonora A. Mhjihcb Btpxy pejie(J)a HaMa cne^H ot 
xopocaH, T.e. toh He e H3noji3BaH btophhho KaTO cnojina. Bhji e nocTaBeH 



325 



6jih30 flo K)acHaTa nopTa Ha ILnHCKa, a flpyr nofloSeH penec]) e HaivtepeH npn 
H3TOHHaTa nopTa. ToBa noKa3Ba, ne KyirrbT icbm TpaKHHCKHa kohhhk e 
npou,'fa4)TaBaji h b CTapaTa StJirapcica CTOJiHua. 

IU,e npnnoMHHM, ne bchhkh Te3H flaHHH ca npe^CTaBeHH ot aBTopn, 
paSoTHJiH He3aBHCHMO ot r. LJeHOB, necTO ca 3acTbnBanH pa3JiHHHH ot 
HeroBHTe CTaHOBHma, ho b KpaiiHa CMeTKa pe3yjrraTHTe ot TaxHaTa paSoTa 
no/iKpenaT Te3Hre My. Bhx floSaBHJi, ne Bee ome Ha StnrapcKH e3HK He ca 
npeBe/ieHH HeroBHTe o6o6maBamH Tpy/iOBe, nySjinicyBaHH b BepjiHH h 
HainiHHr npe3 1930 h 1935 r. ot aBTopHTeTHOTO H3flaTejiCTBO Walter De 
Gruyter & Co, Kaicro h KHHraTa My Goten oder Bulgaren ('Toth hjih 
StJirapn?"), nySjiHicyBaHa npe3 1915 r. b JlaMnHHr. Heica ch noacenaeM, cnefl 
^eceTHJieTHa 3a6paBa (jjyH/iaMeHTajiHHTe My Tpy/iOBe jx& flocTHraaT j\o 
StJirapcKHTe HHraTejiH h #a npnSaBaT BaacHa raeflHa TOHKa b flHCKycjurra no 
npoH3xoAa Ha StnrapHTe, kojito ce pa3rap» b nocueflHO BpeMe. 

npnacHBe #-p TaHno U,eHOB He ycroraa jx& (J)opMHpa BJiHjrrejiHa 
HayHHa uiKOJia, nopa/jH 4>aiCTa, ne no-ronaMaTa nacT ot BpeMeTO ch npeicapBa 
H3B-bH BBJirapna b TtpceHe Ha opnrHHajiHH H3Bopn 3a StJirapcKara HCTopna. 
Bee naK H3CJieflOBaTejiH Kara C. C. IIIaHroB, Ct. Bcuhhkob, H. PanneB, J\. 
K)pyKOB, A. DioroB, cDaHH nonoBa-MyracJDOBa "noeMaT ma(j)eTaTa" h 

AOpa3BHBaT MHOrO OT KRQWTQ Ha TaHHO LJeHOB. Pe^HLta CbBpeMeHHH aBTopn 

cbiho 3acTtnBaT raeflHaTa TOHKa Ha SeneacHTna Hani hctophk. Cpe# Tax 6hx 
cnoMeHan 3. flacKajiOB, M. CH^opoB, A. HnjiKHrnpoB, II. reoprneB, J\. 
XaH/ryroB, H. Eohcb h /rp. 

KHHrHTe Ha TaHno U,eHOB He ca 3ary6HJiH ot CBOjrra aKTyanHOCT. 
Hemo noBene - Bee no-acHO pa36npaMe, ne toh e H3npeBapHJi CBoeTO BpeMe 
b HanHHa ch Ha paSoTa h b nRewie ch. IiocneflHHTe pa3KpnTHa Ha 
StJirapcKHTe apxeoji03H noTBtpac/iaBaT ochobhhji mothb Ha HeroBHTe 
H3CJieABaHHa - SuirapHTe ca npeKHTe HacneflHHHH Ha BHCOKaTa MaTepnanHa 
h ^yxoBHa flpeBHO TpaKHHCKa KyjiTypa. Ta3H KyjiTypa MO>Ke h TpaSBa jx& 



326 



6i.fle onopa Ha HflHHTe noKcmeHHa StJirapn, 3a #a npeStfle BtJirapna bbb 

BeHHOCTTa. 

EEJ1E)KKH 

1. Tzenoff, G. Wer hat Moskau im Jahre 1812 in Brand gesteckt? 
Historische StudienNo. 17. E. Ebering, Berlin, 1900. 

2. Tzenoff, G. Die Abstammung der Bulgaren und die Urheimat der 
Slav en. Walter De Gruyter & Co., Berlin (W 10) und Leipzig, 
1930. Tzehoff, G. Geschichte der Bulgaren und der anderen 
Sudslaven von der romischen Eroberung der Balkanhalbinsel an 
bis zum Ende des neunten Jahrhunderts. Walter De Gruyter & 
Co., Berlin - Leipzig, 1935. 

3. Ta6oB, H., K. BacnjieB. B^KptCBamaTa HCTopna Ha p,-p TaHHO 
IleHOB. PEKO-91, Co4>hs, 2001. 

4. OiroBop Ha peueH3HaTa Ha H. IlpoflaHOB e ny6jiHKyBaH Ha 
CTpaHHHHTe Ha cbihoto cnncaHHe "HcropHHecKH nperjie/t": 
Ta6oB, H. CtGyaeHHflT pyx. McmopuuecKu npezned, 2004 r., rofl. 
LX (2004), kh. 1-2, 201-206. 
http://www.bulgaria88.narod.ru/Tabov3.htm 

5. Tzenoff G. Wer hat Moskau im Jahre 1 812 in Brand gesteckt? 
Nachdr. d. Ausg. Berlin 1900. Kraus Reprint, Kraus, Waduz, 
1965. 

6. lOxac, II. Kupun u Memoduu e EhJizapcKama Mopaeun. 
"Oraeaajio", Co^na, 2000 r. 

7. TeoprHeB, B. TpaKume u mexnux e3UK. BAH, Co<J3Ha, 1977. 

8. /JypHflaHOB, H. E3UK-bm na mpaKume. BAH, Co(})Ha, 1976. 

9. Detschew, D. Die Thrakischen Sprachreste. Rudolf M.Rohrer, 
Wien, 1957. 

10. Sotiroff, G. Elementa nova pro historia macedono-bulgarica. 
Lynn Publishing Co., Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1986. 



327 



riPHJICOKEHHE: 
Hskoh ochobhh ny6jiHKau,HH Ha ^-p IleHOB 

Tzenoff, G. Wer hat Moskau im Jahre 1812 in Brand gesteckt! E. Ebering, 

Berlin, 1900. Reprint: Tzenoff G. Wer hat Moskau im Jahre 1812 in 

Brand gesteckt? Nachdr. d. Ausg. Berlin 1900. Kraus Reprint, Kraus, 

Waduz, 1965. 
Tzenoff, G. Wer hat Moskau im Jahre 1812 in Brand gesteckt? Historische 

Studien No. 17. E. Ebering, Berlin, 1900. 
IleHOB, r. IJpaomeHecmeomo u npae3UKhm na Ohmapume. HcropHico- 

(JDHJiojioraHecKH H3flHpBaHHa. 1907 r., 215 c. BTopo H3flaHHe 2005 r. 
IleHOB, r. CeflMHHHHTe /jhh KaTO Sejier Ha CTapo xphcthjihctbo y oiaBJiHHTe. 

Tlpeaned, kh. 4, 1907 r. 
Hchob, r. EhJieapume ca no-cmapu nocemuiju na TpaKun u MaxedoHun om 

cnaeHHume. HeropHHecKH H3flHpBaHHa bi,3 ocHOBa Ha 

nbpBOH3TOHHHHH. IleH. BoeHeH acypHan, Co(J)hji, 1908 r. 82 CTp. 
IleHOB, r. KpumimecKii pa36op na dhJieapume. 1910 r. 
U,eHOB, r. IJpou3xodhm na 6hJieapume u nauano na 6hmapcKama dhpcucaea u 

OhJieapcKama ijhpKea. lien. TjiyHiKOB, Cocbiui, 1910. 472 CTp. BTopo 

H3AaHHe: BapHa, 2002 r. 
Hchob, T. IJ-bpeume pejimuo3HU 6op6u e EhJieapun. lien. ,H,eH, Cocbna, 1912. 

24 CTp. 
IleHOB, r. IJoKphcmeaHemo na 6hJieapume. 1914 r. 
U,eHOB, r. Xujinda zodunu nu om CMhpmma na Ce. KnuMenm OxpudcKu. lien. 

Ha Hap. ocnryp. #-bo EanicaH, 1914. 16 CTp. 
H,eHOB, T. Kou e KnuMenm OxpudcKu. npH^B. nen., Cocbna, 1915. 52 CTp. 
H,eHOB, r. IJpou3xodhm na xynume. 1915 r. 
H,eHOB, r. Pycun u 3aeoeeameiiHume cmpeMeotcu na chpdume. nen. Hcicpa, 

Cocbna, 1915. Ill CTp. 



328 



Tzehoff, G. Goten oder Bulgaren: quellenkritische Untersuchung tiber die 

Geschichte der alten Skythen, Thrakier und Makedonier. Dyk, 

Leipzig, 1915. 
Tzehoff, G. Geschichte der Bulgaren. Steiwetz, Berlin, 1917. 
Tzenoff, G. Das Wissenschaftliche Leben in Bulgarien. Minerva-Zeitschrift. 

Nachrichten fur die Gelehrte Welt. Erster Jahrgang (1924), Heft 1, pp. 

13-15. 
Tzehoff, G. Die Abstammung der Bulgaren und die Urheimat der Slaven : 

eine historisch-philologische Untersuchung iiber die Geschichte der 

alten Thrakoillyrier, Skythen, Goten, Hunnen, Kelten u.a. Walter De 

Gruyter & Co., Berlin (W 10) und Leipzig, 1930. 
Tzehoff, G. Geschichte der Bulgaren und der anderen Sudslaven von der 

romischen Eroberung der Balkanhalbinsel an bis zum Ende des 

neunten Jahrhunderts. Walter De Gruyter & Co., Berlin - Leipzig, 

1935. 
IleHOB, r. IJpenupHume no Hapodnocmma na 6hmapume. B 1140 ce chcmonm 

u 3aiuo ce eodnm. IIpHflB. nen., CocbHa, 1936. 32 erp. 
IleHOB, r. Kpoeamoea Etmapun u noKp-bcmeanemo na Ohmapume. 1937 r. 

144 CTp. BTopo h TpeTO H3AaHne: 1998 h 2004 r. 
UeHOB, r. Hapodnocmma na cmapume JuaKedonuu. 1938 r. 10 CTp. 
IleHOB, r. IJpoKonueeume xynu u Teocpanoeume Ohmapu. Typuu ujiu cnaennu 

ocnoeaxa Oh/ieapcKama dhpoicaea. lien. Ha Boemio H3flar. cjdoha, 

1938. BTopo h TpeTO H3#aHHe: 1998 h 2004. 
IleHOB, r. Xynume, Koumo ocnoeaxa 6hmapcKama dhpofcaea. Texnunm 

npomxod u mnxnomo xpucmunncmeo. lien. ,HpeBHa BtJirapna, 

Cocbna, 1940. 102 CTp. BTopo H3AaHHe 2002. 

El Alexander Moshev, 

National Museum of Literature, 

95B, Dondukov Blvd., 1000 Sofia, BULGARIA 

E-Mail: aspar72@abv.bg 



329 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal for Local History , Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume 1, Number 3, 2010 



Research 



TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE CEREMONIES 
AMONG THE IBIBIO PEOPLE OF NIGERIA: 
A STUDY IN THEATRICS 



Bassey UBONG 

Federal College of Education, NIGERIA 



Abstract. 'Traditional' marriage among Ibibio people of Southern 
Nigeria is as much entertainment as it is serious drama that prepares a couple 
and their families for a life-long relationship. Although the script may be 
short, the entire event, from the pre-public ceremony to the post-public, in- 
house ceremonies is a deft admixture of rhetoric, song, dance, spectacle, 
character, and thought. The difference is that the event is not an imitation, but 
a mixture of human action and reaction in real time. The three unities may not 
apply as action is usually originated long before that special day but each 
traditional marriage (public) ceremony that precedes, and is seen as being 
more important than a 'white wedding,' can be seen as a complete event in 
and of itself, taking place at the same venue, within a time frame and milieu, 
and concluded in one day. The performance lasts a lifetime and binds not just 
two people, but two families, sometimes two communities and two cultures. 
Christianity and economics have forced changes but the fundamentals remain 



330 



- that the event is verily an admixture of drama and reality aimed at ensuring 
continuity of society. 

Keywords: traditional marriage, theatrics, drama, performance, 
ceremony 



Introduction 

The Ibibio people live and function in the South East of Nigeria. Their 
origins and migration have been a source of speculation, ranging from the fact 
that they migrated from Israel (Umoh-Faithman, 1999) to their Bantu origins 
(Udo, 1983), the latter somehow doubtful because Encarta (2006) holds that 
the Bantus, no longer regarded as a cultural but a language group, actually 
migrated from Eastern Region of Nigeria between 2000BC and 1000 AD (this 
migration is regarded as one of the largest in human history). 

Marriage is regarded as a complex of social, political, religious, and 
economic systems in Ibibio land (Udo, 1983). It covers diverse aspects of the 
society as family and community relationships, sex and sexuality, inheritance, 
and even political power (as rulership particularly in the past resided in 
specific and designated families both the secular and the religious). 

Given the fact that marriage is a fulcrum in Ibibio society, there are 
elaborate ceremonies on it before, during, and after the formal handing over of 
a girl or woman to her suitor. The ceremonies are many, from the initial visit 
to 'knock on the door' (nkofi udok) through the several negotiations and final 
public ceremony, to the myriad of ceremonies following the birth of a child 
and the fact that on cessation of the union or life, certain rites have to be 
executed to ensure sustained bond between the families and communities (if 
applicable) and even the sustenance of life. This paper reviews some 
performance aspects of the final, public ceremony of 'traditional marriage' in 



331 



Ibibio land and provides an appendix - a list of items the groom's family is 
requested to present to the bride's family. 

Theoretical perspectives 

Barrenger (2006) distinguishes between drama - the writing of script 
for the stage, and theatre, the performance of the script. He states: 

[TJheatrical texts, often referred to as drama, usually provide the 
vitalframework of a performance. Greek philosopher Aristotle, writing in the 
4th century BC, thought of drama as the most direct response to humanity's 
need to imitate experience. The word drama has its source in the Greek verb 
dran, meaning "to do," "to act," or "to perform." Aristotle further defined 
drama as "an imitation of an action." His concept of imitation {mimesis, in 
Greek) begins with the playwright's deliberate selection and arrangement of 
events, words, and images into a dramatic pattern that makes up a meaningful 
course of human events. In Aristotle's famous definition, drama is an imitation 
of an action that is whole, complete, and a certain magnitude or scope. 

Classical theory of drama derives in the main from Aristotle's Poetics. 
Aristotle had more respect for tragedy than comedy and his six elements of 
drama were in fact directed at the genre known as tragedy. The six essential 
elements are plot, character, thought, spectacle, language and melody. 
Aristotle states: 

[NJecessarily, therefore, there are in tragedy as a whole, considered as 
a special form, six constituent elements, viz. Plot, Character, Language, 
Thought, Spectacle, and Melody. Of these elements, two [Language and 
Melody] are the media in which they affect the imitation, one [Spectacle] is 
the manner, and three [Plot, Character, Thought] are the objects they imitate; 



332 



and besides these there are no other parts. So then they employ these six 
forms, not just some of them so to speak; for every drama has spectacle, 
character, plot, language, melody, and thought in the same sense, but the most 
important of them is the organization of the events [the plot] {Poetics, 1982, J. 
Hutton, Trans.). 

Wilson (1991) opens his book The Theatre Experience by indicating 
that there is more to theatre than what takes place on a formal stage. He also 
notes that the theatre experience is universal, taking place all the time in every 
tribe, tongue, time, and clime. He states: 

[T]he impulse towards theater is universal. It has occurred wherever 
human society has developed: in Europe and Asia, throughout Africa, and 
among Native Americans. In virtually every culture recorded in history or 
studied by anthropologists, we find rituals, religious ceremonies, and 
celebrations that include elements of theater. One element is a presentation 
by performers in front of an audience - a ceremony, for example, conducted 
by religious leaders before members of a community. 

A typical traditional marriage ceremony in Ibibio land meets these 
elements, as there are performers executing certain rites that have evolved 
over time and are known as part of a process that leads to legitimization of 
the human relationship between a man and a woman. There is everything in 
drama in a traditional marriage rite. 

The Ibibio - controversial origins and controversial composition 

Amoah (1992) has done in-depth work on the Ibibio people of 
Southern Nigeria but he, like others before him, dwells extensively on the 
controversies that relate to the clan component of the Ibibios. Amoah (1992) 



333 



like Udo (1983) documents the major clans in the Ibibio tribe as Ibibio, 
Annang, Efik, Oron, and Eket. He adds some communities along the estuary 
of the number one river in the area - the Cross River - described by 
Portuguese explorers as Rio Del Rey. 

The Ibibio is regarded as the fourth largest ethnic group in Nigeria 
after the Hausa-Fulani, the Yoruba, and the Ibo (cf. Amoah, 1992). Some 
writers, particularly British historians as detailed in Udo (1983) regard the 
Ibibio as closely related to the Ibos particularly as the first landing point from 
the claimed migration from Israel or Egypt was at Arochukwu, an Ibo 
community. The snag is that some people feel the people of Arochukwu 
descended from the Ibibio. Whatever the origin and whatever the composition, 
the Ibibio people remain a subject that should be studied particularly in the 
cultural aspects. 

It is necessary to put on record that the Ibibio was the first ethnic 
group in pre-independent Nigeria to call for creation of states (loose 
federalism) and the first to realize the pivotal role of tertiary education and so 
sent seven of their sons to the United States of America on group scholarship 
for university education. Interestingly, the seven beneficiaries came from the 
"Greater Ibibio" comprising all the ethnic groups that currently claim 
independence. 

Ibibio traditional marriage rite as drama 

Although Aristotle concentrated on tragedy, the six elements or 
principles as well as his thesis on the three unities of time, space and action 
are used to denote the principles of drama generally - which included comedy 
among other genres - and for all intents and purposes, a traditional marriage 
ceremony is a comedy. The script may be shallow (as in an one-page 
'programme'), nevertheless, a typical traditional marriage is a deft admixture 
of rhetoric, song, dance, spectacle, character, and thought. The difference is 



334 



that the event is not an imitation, but a mixture of human action and reaction 
in real time. The three unities may not apply as action is usually originated 
long before that special day but each traditional marriage ceremony can be 
seen as complete in itself, taking place at the same venue, within a time frame 
and milieu, and concluded in one day. 

A typical ceremony starts with a plot, that is, an elaborate arrangement 
of events that has to be guided by a Chairman along with the Master of 
Ceremonies. Because people are involved, character and thought of the 
individuals are brought to bear on the actions that are seen in the ceremony. 
How a particular ceremony turns out depends on the actions and reactions of 
the dramatis personae in a particular event. 

Diction and song are of great significance in a traditional marriage 
ceremony. Each head negotiator ('Chief Spokesman') is usually carefully 
selected by the two families. What they require most are negotiating skills, a 
wonderful command of language particularly figures of speech (what Aristotle 
described as "embellished language), and bagfuls of jokes and repartees. At 
present, professional Masters of Ceremonies and even clowns have taken over 
from the 'Chief Spokesmen' of the past. Song and dance are interspersed, in 
the past by cultural troupes, at present by a combination of cultural troupes 
and band set, depending on the size of the purse of the bride and groom's 
families. 

Aristotle describes spectacle as the manner in a theatrical performance 
in Poetics. Spectacle is more and more being linked to visual effects and 
devices including mechanization of the stage or performance which started in 
the days of Euripides who introduced the dues ex machine as a prelude to the 
denouement of some of his plays. Forms of spectacle in Ibibio traditional 
marriage ceremony are modern, and include most recently, special tents and 
seats for the bride and groom, elaborate decoration of venues, and a few cases 
of fireworks. 



335 



Performance in Ibibio traditional marriage ceremonies 

Going through a traditional marriage ceremony is a trip in theatrics. A 
typical traditional marriage ceremony is a study in aesthetics and in particular, 
drama, with 'wordsmithing,' dance, music, and even subtle chicanery playing 
a part. Playing 'games' and creating a most relaxing atmosphere is so much a 
part of the process or procedure that the entire exercise is often seen as a game 
(ndo odo mbre). Each stage has its dynamics but generally, certain events 
must take place for a traditional marriage ceremony to be regarded as 
complete and successful. Five of the stages are described herein because of 
the theatrical qualities associated with them. 

Opening entertainment - the groom's direct entourage (rather than all 
invited guests) is escorted by maidens or women of the bride's family to the 
sitting room in the family house. There an array of foods are displayed, 
ranging from roasted palm fruits (aduek eyop), palm kernel seeds (isip), and 
boiled and sliced cassava chippings (edita iwa) to cassavayq/b, pounded yam 
with assorted soups and in the modern era, fried rice garnished with salad. The 
essence of such opulent display is to assure the groom and his entourage that 
the prospective bride knows a lot about food and will thus feed her husband 
well. A knowledgeable woman then elaborately presents, explains, and tastes 
each food item before the groom's entourage is served. 

Negotiation phase - two friendly but 'warring' parties are arranged 
opposite each other as the negotiating teams of the bride's family and the 
groom's family. What the bride's family takes into the house in terms of 
quantity and quality ultimately depends on skill of the chief negotiators on 
either side rather than on the "List" earlier submitted and even discussed in 
private by the two families. This phase is usually the most exciting and one 



336 



must say exacting because of the need for profuse employment of proverbs, 
repartees, tropes, fables, jokes, anagrams, and once in while outright 
clowning. Unfortunately modern trends have gradually cut on time used for 
negotiations in the past decade to the present time when it has been 
completely eliminated. Everything requested, given, and accepted are done 
days before the public is invited. Professional masters of ceremony fill the gap 
with jokes, repartees, and choreography. 

The search - the bride, being a very precious being, is 'hidden' from 
view much of the ceremony till the scenes regarding requests, offer, and 
acceptance of items in the 'List' have played themselves out in full. The 
groom's team, about now becoming impatient and getting restive, openly 
demand the appearance of the subject of their mission - the bride. They are 
told to organize a search party, during which a woman in the bride's family 
will be persuaded to lead the search team. She makes demands, makes at least 
two trips, appearing with females other than the bride (usually an old woman 
and later a little girl). By the third trip, the bride is escorted by a long dance 
train comprising females of her age group, friends, and family. The bride is 
usually elaborately dressed and decked with trinkets and bracelets from the 
hair to the ankles. It is a triumphant moment for both parties after a long 
battle of wits. 

The Mock Resistance - while the process of exchange of drinks and 
pledges among the bride, groom, and parents of the two is being arranged, in 
some parts of Ibibio land and particularly in Oron, a mock resistance is put up 
by a young man from the bride's village or if both spouses are from the same 
village, from another family or another village. The interloper declares that he 
had earlier expressed interest or at least had eyes on the girl and would on no 
account allow the groom to take away the dream of his life. Brief negotiations 



337 



follow, after which the defeated suitor (interloper) weeps out of the scene, 
with an enriched purse and some spirits under his armpits in tow. This 
performance is described in Bassey Ubong's Lovelorn (2009). 

The Nuptial dance - what is usually described as the "first joint public 
activity by the new couple" usually marks the end of the ceremony of joining 
a young man and a young woman in an everlasting union of two persons, two 
families, and sometimes two villages or two tribes, or two cultures. The new 
couple dances to music supplied by a band set or traditional dance group. 
They are "sprayed" with coins (in the past) and currency notes of which this 
has currently been prohibited by the Federal Government of Nigeria in a bid 
to "give respect" to one of the country's national symbols - the Naira. 

Other performances 

Other less elaborate performances include "blocking" the entrance to 
the village (if the groom is not an indigene) by young men who would inform 
the groom's entourage that "people keep this village roads from weeds" and 
people protected the girl about to be taken out of the village or a family. Items 
usually taken from the groom include one football, a packet of cigarettes, a 
bottle of spirit, a bottle of wine, and cash as negotiated. 

The intermission that gets the audience to watch the couple and their 
families is in itself a rite. Wine is popped, drinks are poured, sipped and 
exchanged among the bride, groom, and their parents. Pledges of good 
behavior and 'to love and to cherish' are made. In some case (and recently) 
Pastors or religious leaders are brought to pray and confirm the traditional 
performance. 



338 



Change in performance 

Skolnick (2006) submits that two important changes in theme and 
influence in marriage in western societies are increased equality between the 
partners (hitherto skewed in favor of men because of the patriarchal structure 
of the society) and shift of emphasis from social reproduction to intimacy as 
the primary motive for marriage. Although cursory view would reveal 
considerable shift in the status of wives in Ibibio land (from those to be heard 
at the backhouse, to persons now actively participating in business discussions 
involving third parties), equality of the sexes is greater in educated families 
and families where religion encourages partnership rather than servile 
relationships. It however appears traditional religionists and the less educated 
do not still see women as equal partners in marriage. 

There is no doubt that with higher levels of education, higher levels of 
exposure to liberating literature, and with more time for leisure, there is 
greater tilt towards intimacy in marriages in Ibibio land as against the past 
when farm work from dawn to dusk would leave both partners too tired for 
sexual relationships for mutual satisfaction rather than for procreation. 
Nevertheless, procreation remains the principal reason for marriage. 

What has changed significantly in marriage in Ibibio land has to do 
with performance and that during traditional marriage ceremonies. 
Imperatives such as ending the function at night, altercations arising from 
conflict during negotiations on anything from the quality and quantity of items 
on the 'list' to size of bride price, have all but disappeared. At present, 
negotiations take place between the two families in private and all the things 
to be given and received are concluded prior to the public ceremony. On the 
other hand, "white wedding" has changed very little beyond increased 
sophistication and cost. 



339 




Fig. 1. Traditional boat-on-land dance. The lady is from the riverine 

community 




V HI 

Fig. 2. Assorted food to welcome groom's family 



340 




Fig. 3. Gifts o the groom's family at the end of the ceremony 




Fig. 4. Bride and groom before their families for teeing of knot and blessings 



341 



Summary and conclusion 

The Ibibio people of Southern Nigeria have elaborate ceremonies for 
the legitimization of a nuptial union between a man and a woman. The 
'traditional marriage' ceremony, currently the culmination of a series of 
activities and closed negotiations between the two primary families in the 
transaction, demonstrates elements of drama in the classical Aristotelian 
mould, to wit, plot, character, language, thought, and spectacle. These are 
expected to fall into the ambit of the three unities of time, space, and action, 
i.e., discounting the series of negotiations pre-dating the public ceremony. 

Each traditional marriage ceremony is a complete outing and is usually 
an event eagerly expected and much cherished by all parties to it - the bride 
and groom, their immediate and distant families, the community, and guests 
and friends. Although there have been elements of change in line with 
economic and religious expectations, the fundamentals remain; the ceremony 
will continue not only as a cultural but also as a social event that provides 
participants with varied rewards and memories. 



REFERENCES 
Amoah, F.E.K. (1992). Oral tradition and ethnicity in the creation of new 

states in Nigeria: the case of Akwa Ibom state. Research Review, 8, 

76-89. 
Aristotle (1982). Poetics. J. Hutton (Trans.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 

(Original work published 330BC). 
Barranger, M.S. (2006). Theatre: a way of seeing. Belmont: Wadsworth 
Ubong, B. (2009). Lovelorn: a play. Omoku: Fecet Services. 
Skolnick, A. (2006). Marriage. Microsoft Encarta (Computer software). 

Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Corporation. 
Udo, E.A. (1983). Who are the Ibibio? Onitsha: Africana-Fep Publishers. 



342 



Umoh-Faithmann, M.M. (1999). Ibibio Jews of Nigeria. Obo Etok: Menorah 

Publishing. 
Wilson, E. (1991). The theatre experience. New York: McGraw-Hill. 



APPENDIX 



Sample of Bride's Family 'List' 
(From Oboyo Ikot Ita, Nsit Ibom Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom 

State) 
Mbup Ndo Ayin ("Asking for the woman's hand") 

1. Ete: Ekpeme Schnapp ked [Father: One bottle of Schnapps (Seaman's) 
wrapped in a loin cloth} 

2. Eka: Ekpeme wine ked ewafi ke ofofi isin (Mother: One bottle of wine 
wrapped in a loin cloth) 

3 . Carton beer ked (One carton of beer) 

4. Crate memmem mmin ked (One crate of mineral water) 

5 . Uman ebot ked (okop usem) (One native nanny goat) 

Mkpo Ndito Ete (Extended Family) 

1 . Carton beer ked (one carton of beer) 

2. Crate mmem mmem min ked (one crate of mineral water) 

3. Iwotunwon (one 'head' or sheaf of tobacco) 

4. Ete ibofi ked (one pod of native kola nuts) 

5 . Okuk usiak ibofi (cash for breaking of the kola, varied, from N200.00) 

6. Ekpeme ufofop ked (one bottle of native gin) 



343 



7. Okpo ukot okook ked (one keg of palm wine) 

8. Ekpeme whisky ked (one bottle of whisky) 

9. Ebot ndito ete (one nanny goat for the extended family) 

10. OkAk ndito ete (cash for the extended family, varied, ranging from 
N5, 000.00) 

11. OkAk itofi ebot, (cash on the 'neck' of the goat, varied, ranging from 
N500.00). 

Mkpo Etebom mme Ekaete (Grandfather and Grandmother) 

1 . Uman ebot ked (one nanny goat) 

2. Ofofi isin, ofofi idem, ofofi iwod ked ked (one piece of loin cloth, one 
top, one head tie for the grandmother) 

3. Ofofi isin, ofofi idem, itam, esafi ked ked (one each of loin cloth, top, 
hat, and walking stick for the grandfather) 

4. Okposofi mmin ked (one bottle of spirit) 

5. Ekpeme ufofop ked (one bottle of native gin) 

6. Ekpeme wine ked (one bottle of wine) 

7 . Iwot unwofi ked (one sheaf of tobacco) 

8. Akafi (limestone) 

9. Ete ibofi ked mme usiak ibofi (one pod of kola nuts plus N200.00) 

10. Udia ition (5 yams) 

1 1 . Okpo ukot okook ked (one calabash or keg of palm wine) 

12. OkAk etebom mme ekaete (cash for grandfather and grandmother, 
negotiable, say about N5, 000.00) 

Mkpo Ndo Ete Ayin (Father) 

1. Asana nta whisky mme English wax (one bottle of 3-in-l whisky 
wrapped with English wax loin cloth) 

2. Ebot ete ayin - okop usem (one native nanny goat) 



344 



3. Akamba ofofi idem mme English wax (one 'chieftaincy' top with 
English wax loin cloth) 

4. Esafi, itam, ikpoukot mme stokin, ufAkeyo, ked ked (one each of 
walking stick, hat, umbrella) 

5. Siot, sinkin, nkanika ubok, ked ked (one each of shirt, singlet, wrist 
watch) 

6. Ofofi ukuoko idem (one bath towel) 

7. Whisky mme schnapps carton kedeked (one carton each of whisky and 
schnapps) 

8. Carton beer duop kuto kuto (10 cartons of assorted beer) 

9. Crate mmem mmem mmin duop (10 crates of mineral water) 

10. Ufofop ke ufa otu [native gin in a new (ceramic) jar] 

1 1 . Ukokok unwofi (ground tobacco) mme akafi (limestone) 

12. Ibofi mme usiak ibofi (a pod of native kola nuts plus cash) 

Mkpo Ndo Eka Ayin (Father) 

1 . Ebot eka - okop usem, ked (one native goat) 

2. Ekpeme brandy ked enwafi ofonisin - English wax (one bottle of 
brandy wrapped with loin cloth) 

3. Ofonisin - George, Hollandis ked ked (one each of George and 
Hollandis) 

4. Itofi ofofi iba - lace (two lace blouses) 

5. Ubop eba, ofoniwot, ofofi adaha idem, iba, fikpo ubok mme nkpo itofi, 
iba iba (two each of brassiere, headtie, underskirt, lingerie) 

6. Nkanika ubok, ufAk eyo, ikpa ukot, ked ked (one each of wrist watch, 
umbrella, pair of shoes) 

7. Okposofi mmin carton ked kuto kuto (one carton of assorted spirits) 

8. Beer carton ition (5 cartons of beer) 

9. Mmem mmem mmin crate ition (5 crates of mineral water) 



345 



10. Aman akama ked mme ukop (one big metal basin with a cover) 

Mkpo otu owo (General) 

1 . Nsuan nsuan mmin (assorted drinks for the guests) 

2. Okuk ibene (cash for entertainment, negotiable but should be 
reasonable) 

Mkpo Okpono (Name sake) 

1 . Ebot okpono (one nanny goat) 

2. Ofoh isin, ofofi idem, ufok iwod ked ked (loin cloth, top, headgear, 
either male or female) 

3. QkAk okpono (cash for the namesake, negotiable) 

Observations: 

1. The things for the extended family are listed before others, 
emphasizing the place of the extended family system in community 
life. 

2. Any requirement for cash is negotiable including bride price. 

3. Items for the grandmother and mother are usually bought by the bride 
although with money from the groom 

4. Demands for material things are made because after marriage, the 
woman, brought up and educated by her family, will generate wealth 
for the husband's family. She is therefore an investment with returns 
lasting a lifetime. 



S3 Bassey Ubong 

Federal College of Education (Technical) 

PMB 11, Omoku, Rivers State, NIGERIA 

E-Mail: basubong@yahoo.com 



346 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal for Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume 1, Number 3, 2010 



Research 



KbM BMIPOCA 3A PEAJIHHTE 
(rEOrPAOCKH) H BfcOEPA^KAEMHTE 
(JIErEHflAPHO-MHTHHHH) OEEKTH, 
C1>BMECTEHH B1>B BCEJIEHATA HA 

JjyXA 

Tutu CHMEOHOBA 

Hrtcmumym no emnoJiozuH u cpoiiKjiopucmuKa c EnmoepcKpcKu My3eu 



Abstract. This article studies interesting and little known in Bulgarian 
ethnography problem - the sacred mountain. The author establishes the 
mountain as a geographical fact (Kajlas, the Balkan mountain, the Pirin 
mountain, the Rila mountain, the Rhodopes) and as an image in tall stories, 
folktales, folk songs, myths. The research refers to archaeological, 
geographical, mythological, linguistic and ethnographical sources of 
knowledge. The article shows how the myth of holly place functioned under 
the condition of the Bulgarian traditional culture. 

Keywords: civilization, ethnography, folktales, folk songs, geography, 
linguistics, mythology, sacred places 



347 



06pa3"faT Ha CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa e TBopemie Ha HOBeniKna jiyx. 
CBemeHaTa nnaHHHa e npocTpaHCTBO, Cb3fla/ieHO ot HOBeica, 3a j\& npHKmiBa 
TaiiHCTBeHHa cbjit Ha SoroBe, nojiySoacecTBa h mhthhhh repon. 
MHTOJiornaTa He ce 3aMHHaBa c reorpa(])CKaTa HfleHTH(|)HKaLi,HJi Ha 
MHTHHHHre njiaHHHH, ho h He onpoBepraBa (|)aKTa, ne b hjikoh cjiynan 
oSeKTbT Ha HenHHa pa3Ka3 HMa peanHO reorpa(j)CKO cbOTBeTCTBHe, KaicbBTO e 
CJiynaaT c OnHMn b flHenma PbpHHJi. ripHMep 3a CBemeHa nnaHHHa, kojito e 
reorpa(|)CKH H^eHTHCJDHHHpaHa, e h Kanjiac. 

CeemeHaTa luiaHMna - oSeKT Ha HayHHH HHTepnpeTaun 

Kaiijiac e Ha3BaHHe Ha peaneH reorpacJDCKH oSeicr, npeACTaBeH 
HaKpaTKO b Bojibuiaa coBeTCKaa 3HHHKJioneflHJi no oieflHHa HanHH: 
"IIjiaHHHCKH xpeSeT b K»KHaTa nacT Ha TnSeT (KHTan), kohto ce npocrnpa 
ycnope/iHO Ha XHManaHTe. Cpe^HaTa BHCOHHHa Ha xpeSeTa e okojio 6000 m., 
a Ha BtpxoBeTe - #o 7000 m. BaneflCTBHe Ha ronaMaTa Ha/jMopcKa BHCOHHHa 
Ha TnSeT (fltHOTO Ha ocHOBHHTe aojihhh e Ha 4000 - 5000 m.), 
OTHOCHTenHaTa BHCOHHHa Ha xpe6eTa e 1000 -1500 MeTpa".^ B TojiaMaTa 
CfaBeTCKa eHu,HKJioneAHa e cnoivteHaTO, ne Ha thSctckh xpeSeTbT Kanjiac ce 
HapHna Fcmmpu h b npeBOfl 03HanaBa "jie/ieHH njiaHHHH". Cnope/i 
HHTnpaHHa ot II. 06pa3u,OB "Araac Ha CBeTa" TaM ca noconeHH flBa 
npnpoAHH (B3aHMOo6B'bp3aHH) oSeKTa, Ha30Bami c czpiaKbB tohohhm. Be3 
JX& oTpHna eHu,HKJioneAHHHOTO 3HaHne, tckctlt Ha Araaca ro floyroHHaBa, b 
CMHCbJi, ne Ha3BaHHeTO Kanjiac ce OTHaca KaKTO #o Henna njiaHHHCKH 
xpeSeT, TaKa h ^o CKaneH MacHB (njiaHHHa), kohto e ejieMenr ot pejie(J3a Ha 
xpeSeTa. 06pa3noB oSane cnoMeHaBa, ne nuaHHHaTa Kaiijiac HMa ome e^HO 
HMe - Kampudone, 6e3 #a yroHHH Ha Kaia>B e3HK h koh Hapo/i e rsji 
nofloSHO HMe Ha BnenaTJiaBamHa CKaneH MacHB. 3) 



348 



Ako ot raeflHa TOHKa Ha reorpacjmjrra Ha3BaHHeTO oShkhobcho no- 
necTO ce CBT>p3Ba c Henna ropeonncaH xpeSer, to He TaKa ctojit HemaTa b 
MHTOJiorHHHO-pejiHrH03HaTa c(J3epa Ha no3HaHHe, KB^eTO He Hjuiara 
njiaHHHCKa Bepnra, a caMO e#HH CKaneH MacHB, Han-BHCOKHJiT, o6Btp3aH c 
npe/iCTaBH 3a cbjitoct, e HMeHyBaH Kanjiac. Kannac e CBemeHO mjicto 3a 
npeflCTaBHTenHTe Ha hjikoh Tpa/iHHHOHHH h3tohhh pejinrHH - BoHno, 
HH^yHCTH, Sy^HCTH. Cnopefl HH^yHCTicaTa MHTOJiorna TaM e oSHTajiHmeTO 
Ha 6or IIlHBa, a ctmo h Ha 6or, no3HaT no# HMeTO KySepa. 

HisieTO KaiiJiac/KauJiaca HMa caHCKpHTCKH nporoxo/i - kailasa. 
THSeTCKOTO Ha3BaHne Ha nuaHHHaTa e Tuce. 5) IIpH cpemn c npeflCTaBHTdiH 
Ha cnoivteHaTHTe h3tohhh pejinrHH ce ycTaHOBaBa, ne b TaxHaTa cpe^a 
SnTyBaT h Apyrn Ha3BaHHa 3a noHHTaHHa oSeKT. TH6eTu,HTe HapnnaT onje 
Kaitnac Kyjiama na IIIaMdaJia, a cbceflmrre ci>mo CBememi 3a Tax CKanHH 
(J)opMH - Chptjemo na eodama. 6) . 

MHoroo6pa3HeTO b Ha30BaBaHeTO Ha reorpacJDCKHa oSeicr e OTpa3eHO 
h b TeKCTa Ha StnrapcKna H3CJieflOBaTeji AjieKcaH^tp HjineB. Cnopefl Hero 
Kaujiaw "e HaH-3ana/iHHJiT pernoH Ha ThSct" (3a TOBa, ne e njiaHHHCKa 
MecTHOCT, ce noApa36Hpa ot cnoMeHaBaHeTO Ha npoxo/ni), a mo ce OTHaca 
ro nuaHHHCKHa MacHB, Hocem cbmoTO HMe, toh e npe^CTaBeH c hjikojiko 
Ha3BaHH»: "U.eHTbp'bT Ha CBeTa" - njiaHHHaTa CyviepH (Bp. KaHJiani) c 
BptxHa TOHKa MaH/iapa (cpB. c Ma/iapa)". 7) 

CKanHHaT MacHB Kanjiac e 6hji h npofltJiacaBa #a Stfle MHoro 
nocemaBaHO mjicto ot hokjiohhhhh, a b no-HOBO Bpeivte - ot TypncTH h 
H3CJieflOBaTejiH. 3a ijejnrre Ha TOBa roaneflBaHe H3KjnoHHTejieH HHTepec 
npe/iCTaBJiaBaT BnenaTJieHHaTa h pa3Cb>KfleHHjrra Ha Hanina CBBpeMeHHHK - 
H3CJieflOBaTeji» EpHCT MyimanieB, noceTHJi oSeicra b Kpaa Ha XX BeK. 

ripe/iH j\& Tptrae kbm TnSeT h jx& ce H3npaBH npe# Kaiijiac, 
MyimanieB H3MHHaBa MHoro jxbJYhT hbt kt>m Hero b MHCJiHre ch. HeroBHjrr 



349 



HHTepec e HaconeH He kt>m Henna xpeSeT, a kbm OHa3H nacT, kojito ce e 
HanoacHJia b npe^CTaBaTa Ha hjucojiko pennrHH Kara CBemeHa njiaHHHa. 
Myji^auieB 3araTBa 3a Hea ome b ntpBaTa ch KHHra Om kozo CMe 
npou3Jie3Jiu? B HbTyBaHeTO ch io,m Kanjiac b npeHOCHHa h b npeKHa cmhckh 
Ha AyMaTa toh npaBH hjikojiko HajioacHrejiHH mhcjiobhh xojxa - omiTBa ce }\a 
ocmhcjih HanHHHeTO h pojurra Ha CBemeHaTa nnaHHHa b KOHTeKCTa Ha 
aKTyanHHTe ch HayHHH TtpceHHa - reHO(J30HAa Ha HOBenecTBOTO, jiorH3Ma, 
BH/iOBeTe BO^a - acHBa h MtpTBa. Myji^anieB rorpaac/ia xHnoTe3aTa, ne 
Kaiijiac e b ocHOBaTa Ha CBeTOBHa CHCTeMa ot nnpaMH/iH h MOHyMeHTH, 
Cfa3AaAeHa ot npeflCTaBHrejiH na npeflHHiHHre pacn 3a OTBeac/iaHe Ha 
pa3pyniHTejiHaTa eHeprna, kojito HOBenecTBOTO OTflejia. Ci^flaBaHeTO Ha 
nofloSHa CHCTeMa e npeflOxpaHHrejiHa Mapica, npeflnpneTa no BpeMeTO, 
KoraTO ceBepHHaT nonioc Ha 3eMjrra e 6hji jioKajiH3HpaH b pafioHa Ha 
Kanjiac, nopa/ni KoeTO Ha CKanHHa MacHB e OTpe#eHO HeHipanHO mjicto b 
npocTpaHCTBeH h b cbSnTneH nnaH. Myji^anieB ocmhcjiji 4>eHOMeHa Kanjiac 
b HeroBHTe xpoHOJiorHHHH H3MepeHHa, npn TOBa He caMO KaTO BpeMe Ha 
nojma h npeflCToama aKTHBHOCT, a h KaTO CJie^CTBHe, npeflH3BHKaHO ot 
npeflxoflHH, nepnoAHHHO noBTapamH ce cbShths Ha 3eM»Ta. XHnoTe3aTa 
npe/inojiara HanHHHe Ha mjicto Btpxy 3eMjrra, Kt/ieTO npneMCTBeHOCTra Ha 
acHBOTa e rapaHTHpaHa npe3 ctmecTBa, kohto ca b cbCToaHne jx& Bi,3poflJiT 
acHBOTa h jx& nocTHrHaT "oTrjieac^aHeTo" Ha hobck c onpeflejieHO KanecTBO. 
Myji^anieB KOHKpeTH3npa 3HaHHjrra ch 3a Kanjiac no KapTorpa(j)CKH 

H3BOpH H Hpe3 HH(])OpMaHHJI 3a BMMOaCHHTe MapnipyTH Ha npOXOAHMOCT H 

HanHHHTe 3a opraHH3npaHe Ha HayHHa eKcncmmna. reorpacJDCKHjrr oSeicr e c 
eflH03HanHO onpeAeJieHH Koop/piHaTH Btpxy 3eMHara noBtpxHOCT. He TaKa 
oSane ctojit HemaTa b TeKCTOBaTa nacT Ha TnSeTCicaTa KapTorpa(])HJi. KoraTO 
no/iroTBa eKcneflHHHjrra Ha cboji eKHn ^o Kaiijiac, MyrmanieB OTKpnBa, ne 
KapTorpa(J)CKaTa HH(|)opMaHHJi e flOCTa oStpKBama: "Ha3BaHHjrra Ha peKH, 



350 



nJiaHHHH, flOJIHHH h MaHaCTHpH 6axa H3IIHCaHH npOH3BOJIHO - Ha thSctckh, 
Ha HHflHHCKH, Ha KHTaHCKH B aHrJIHHCKa TpaHCKpffllHHJI. j\& He TOBOpHM 3a 

HeTOHHOCTHTe npH reorpa(J)CKHTe pa3CToaHHa h bhcohhhh". 

yneHHaT ctSHpa HH(])opMaHHJi 3a CBjrrocTra Ha Kanjiac, KaTO ce 
no30BaBa Ha nncMeHH h ycTHH H3Bopn ot pejiHrH03eH, MHTO-noeTHneH h 
jiereH/iapeH xapaKTep. noaneflHHTe My noMaraT jx& yroHHH 
npocTpaHCTBeHaTa CTpyKTypa Ha CBemeHHa oSeicr (nofl3eMHa h Hafl3eMHa 
nacT, BxoAOBe, HaHMeHyBaHH oSeicrH, ^eiiCTBamH jiHua - SoroBe, /ryxoBe, 
HCTopHnecKH jihhhocth). PaSoraaTa cxeMaTHHHa KapTa Ha paMoHa b 
HenocpeACTBeHa 6jih30Ct j\o CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa Kanjiac, H3pa6oTeHa ot 
MyjiflameB no noBOfl Ha TnSeTCKaTa eiccneflHHHJi, BKJiiOHBa hjikojiko 
reorpa(J)CKH oSeicra, a hmchho - njiaHHHCKHTe BtpxoBe Kaiijiac (Ha ceBep) h 
rypjia-MaH/iaTa (Ha ior), e3epaTa PaKiuac (flaBOJiCKOTO e3epo) h 
MaHOcapoBap (CBemeHOTO e3epo), pa3nojio>KeHH k»kho ot Kanjiac, peKHre 
AjcnioSxta (h3tohho) h AMHTaSxa (3ana/iHo) ot Kanjiac. B npocTpaHCTBOTO, 
HapeneHO b jiereH^HTe Cmpana na Eozoeeme, ca MapKnpaHH onje 
MaHacTHptT Hy-roMna (ceBepHO ot CBemeHOTO e3epo) h Mnemonic* na 
zjiadnun dneon (3ana/iHO ot npHTOHHTe Ha p. AjvorraSxa), Kt/ieTO cnope/i 
Myji^auieB 6hji rorpa/ieH TudemcKun Baeunon - rpa^BT Ha noBTopHO 
KJiOHHpaHHa HOBeK ot neTaTa paca. 

C noBene no/ipoSHOCTH (bbb BTopa paSoraa KapTa) e npeflcraBeHa 
OHa3H HacT ot npocTpaHCTBOTO b HenocpeflCTBeHa 6jih30Ct #o Kanjiac, npe3 
kosto MHHaBa CBemeHaTa nbTeica (napHKapivta). ToBa npocTpaHCTBO ^ocTHra 
Ha ceBep #o H3BopnTe Ha noconeHHTe peKH, a Ha h3tok h 3ana/i e 
orpaHHneHO ot ropHHTe hm TeneHHa. HaM-ioacHaTa HeroBa TOHKa e flapneH. 
B HenocpeACTBeHa 6jih30Ct ^o CBemeHaTa nbTeica ce HaMHpaT oSeicrHTe 
^.apneH; MaHacrapBT Hyicy; nemepaTa, kojito MaTepHanH3Hpa mhcjih; 
e3epoTO TapaKyHA h nemepaTa Ha Mnnapena. B npocTpaHCTBOTO, orpa/ieHO 



351 



ot CBemeHaTa nbTeica, ce BJiH3a npe3 npeBana flojiMa-na, pa3nojioaceH Meac/iy 
H3BopHTe Ha cnoMeHaTHTe #Be peKH. Meac/iy Hero h CBemeHaTa KaiMac ce 
npocTHpa JJojiunama na cMhpmma, kojito CTHra ^o CKaneH oSeicr c 
A"broo6pa3Ha (J)opMa, HapeneH b jiereH^HTe Oejiedcmomo hci i^apn na 
CMhpmma fljua. ^pyrn HanMeHyBaHH o6eKTH b Cmpanama na Eozoeeme, 
pa3nojioaceHH b cbceflCTBO c Kanjiac, ca t.h. McuihK Kaiijiac, Cnedama na 
Eyda (KaMtK c (j)opMaTa Ha HOBeuiKO CTtnano), IJopmama na CMhpmma, 
Cexupama Ha Kapjviama, JJowbrn na ujacmjiueun KaMhK, roMno-YIam, 
Cmamynma na nemnmun uoeeK. 

HaKpaa MyrmanieB ocmhcjiji Bp-b3KaTa Meac/iy SHTyBamoTO b 
Tpa^HHHHTe Ha H3TOKa 3HaHHe 3a cbiHHOCTTa Ha Kanjiac h HeroBOTO 
OTpaaceHne b KyjiTypaTa Ha CTpaHH KaTO Hh/ihji, Henan, TnSeT - xpaMOBa 
apxHTeierypa, opHaMeHTHKa, CKynnTopa, pejiHrH03HO noBe/ieHHe. E/iBa 
CJieA TOBa 3a/iOHHO npeflBapHrejiHO 3ano3HaHCTBO Myji^auieB ce H3npaB» 
ohh b ohh c TnSeT h Kanjiac. H eTO KaKBO BHac/ja toh: "Okojio Hac ce 
npocTHpaiue 6e3KpaHHHjrr TnSeT. XtjJimhctoto nnaTO, pa3nojioaceHO Ha 
4500-5500 MeTpa, no-rojiaMO ot 3ana/iHa EBpona h 3ao6HKOJieHO ot Han- 
BHCOKHTe njiaHHHH b CBeTa, rorjieacflanie TaKa, caicaHi e ctTBopeHO 
cneuHajiHO 3a BceMHpHHa noTon. TyK e Shjio bt,3mo>kho xopaTa #a ce 
cnacaT ot Ha/jHramaTa ce h noMHTama bchhko BtJiHa. Tpy/jHO e Shjio oSane 
flace ouejiee". 10 

H3BecTHO e, ne ohhtc Bnac^aT OHOBa, 3a kocto rn e noflroTBHJi yMtT. 
ritpBHTe BnenaTJieHHa Ha Myji^auieB ot TnSeT ro ySeac/jaBaT b 
npaBOMepHOCTTa Ha HeroBHTe npeflnojioaceHHa othocho Bpt3KaTa Ha Ta3H 
nacT Ha 3eMHOTO npocTpaHCTBO c orpOMHH no CBoa Mama6 pa3pyuiHTejiHH 
cbShths h noaneflBanoTO rn Bi>3pa>KAaHe Ha HOBenecTBOTO. 

CtBpeMeHHHaT hokjiohhhk, TypncT hjih H3CJieflOBaTeji, noen KtM 
Kaitnac, MHHaBa noKpaM CTbnanoBH/nrH nnpaMH/iH (e#Ha ot (j)opMHTe Ha 



352 



TiiSeTCKHTe CTymi - MecTHH pejiHrH03HH naMeTHHu,H), noKpaM t.h. IJopma 
KhM UIoMdaJia, noKpaM Kawbun c rpaBnpaHH Btpxy Tax Hepa36npaeMH 
nocnaHHa, noKpaM KptroBe n>CTO pacTJima TpeBa, OTKpoaBamH ce Ha (J30Ha 
Ha ocKt^HaTa TnSeTCKa pacTHTejmocT - Bee 3Hau,H (KyjrrypHH h npHpo^HH), 
CBH/ieTejiCTBamH 3a npnSjiHacaBaHe kbm OHOBa npocTpaHCTBO, KoeTO cnopefl 
MecTHHTe e Cmpana na Eozoeeme, a cnopefl xHnoTe3aTa Ha Myji^auieB - 
Tpad na Eozoeeme. IlaK cnopefl ctmaTa xnnoTe3a Kanjiac e HeHTtptT Ha 
T03H rpa/i. 

Cnefl KaTO hh e 3ano3Han c HaH-BneHaTJiaBamHa oSeicr Kanjiac, 3a 
kohto Myji^auieB CMjrra, ne e nnpaMH/iajiHa KOHCTpyKHHa c H3KycTBeH 
npoH3xoA, toh b npeKHa cmhcbji Ha ^yiviaTa H3BJiHna ot CKanHOTO 
oSKptaceHHe (j)opMHTe Ha rpa/ja, kohto e Tptraaji jx& OTKpne, h hh npaBH 
CbnpHHacTHH Ha rjie^KaTa npe3 cjiobccho onncaHHe h rpa(J3HHeH o6pa3 
(npHJioaceHHTe kbm TeKCTa ckhhh h (j)OTorpa(j}HH). A 3a no-fleTanjiHOTO 
OTKpoaBaHe Ha 3acHeTHre oSeKTH ^onpHHaca KOMniOTtpHaTa o6pa6oTKa Ha 
CHHMKHTe, ctmo npnjioaceHH KtM HJiiocTpaTHBHHa MaTepnan. 

"ApxHTeKTypaTa" Ha Tpada na Eozoeeme BKJiiOHBa nupajuudu (c 
HenoBTapamH ce (J3opMH, TB-bp^e pa3JiHHHH ot ernneTCKHTe nnpaMH/iH, 
kohto ca cxoflHH noMOK/iy ch), dhzoo6pa3Hu, nodKoeoo6pa3Hu h 
cnupanoeudnu KOHcmpyKifuu, KaKTO h KaM6aHoo6pa3Hu KaMeHHU cpopjuu. 
"ApxHTeKTypHHTe" fleTaiijiH ca npeflCTaBeHH ot "komuhu, KyjiuuKu, cmhJidu, 
cmamyu, nopma". Ho nbT» Ha cpaBHeHHeTO c no3HaTaTa My ypSaHHCTHHHa 
KapTHHa Ha ctBpeMeHHHa cbjit Myji^auieB onpHJinnaBa MOHyMeHTHTe Ha 
deopifu h xpajuoee: "C'bop'baceHHeTO, kocto pasrjieac^axMe, Seine bhcoko 
okojio 250 MeTpa h npeflCTaBJiaBanie KOMSHHainui ot Kyjin h otbcchh ctchh. 
HanoAoSaBaiue KaTOJinnecKH xpaM h HancTHHa romaine npo3opu,H h 
BpaTH". 14) 



353 



IU,o ce OTHaca #o KOMeHTHpamaTa raeflicaTa b MOMeHTa Ha 
HaSniOAeHHeTO aBTopoBa mhcbji, kojito He npecTaBa jx& ch 3a/iaBa BtnpocH h 
jx& yjiaBa npeflnojioacemiji, no-KbCHO tji HaMHpa hjikoh OTroBopn b 
onncaHHTe cpemn h pa3roBopn c xopaTa Ha TnSeT. Bpi,3KaTa c MHHanoTO 
oSane, ot KoeTO ce onaKBa o6»CHeHHe 3a hjikoh npeflnojioacemui, nopo/jemi 
ot npeKHTe BnenaTJieHHJi, ce ocbinecTBJiBa HaH-nbJiHO npe3 /ipeBHaTa MecTHa 
nncMeHa Tpa^nnHJi. Ta e acHBa h ^eHCTBama. H y^ocTOBepa jiereH^Hre, 
KaKTO h 3HaHH»Ta, ctxpaHeHH b CBeineHHie TeKCTOBe. ,HpeBHHTe KHHrn, 
kohto ce na3»T b MaHacTHp b paiioHa Ha Kaitnac, cbffbpacaT, no npH3HaHHa 
Ha MOHacHre, 3HaHHa 3a npHHnnna Ha MaH^ana, HapeneHa KananaKpa, no 
kohto e H3rpa/ieH Kaimac. 

U,apcKaTa npecmjiHima Kafljie-rpaAa cnopeA neceHHOTo 
HacjieACTBO Ha StJirapirre 

B"b3MoacHa jih e HaicaKBa Bpt3Ka Meac/iy onncBaHHa ot Myji^ameB 
rpad na doeoeeme (okojio njiaHHHCKHa MacHB Kaiijiac, BT>3npHeMaH ot 
aBTopa KaTO nenrbp Ha MOflejinpaHOTO ot npeflnHTe Ha ctBpeMeHHOTO 
HOBenecTBO npocrpaHCTBo) h cnoMeHaTHa b StJirapcKOTO Hapo/nio neceHHO 
TBopnecTBO rpa/i, HapeneH Kaiijiel 3a H^eHTHneH oSeKi jih craBa ^yvia? 
flanH b HaninaT cSopmnc "Be^a CnoBeHa" b MHio-noeTHHHa (J3opMa HaMHpaT 
OTpaaceHne (J3aKTH, kohto CBH^eTcncTBaT 3a jjpeBuii Bpi>3KH clc cBemeHaTa 
nnaHHHa Kaimac, HfleHTH(])HnHpaHa reorpa(])CKH? ^ann CTaBa ^yvia 3a 
CJiynanHO cbBna/ieHHe Ha neKceMH (Kaimac, Kairae-rpafla), kohto o6ane 
noKa3BaT cxoactbo b cbfltpacaTejieH nnaH? Hjih b cnynaa ca Hannne 
e^HOTHnHH (J)aKTH, B"b3HHKHanH b H3BecTHa nocjie/iOBaTejiHOCT Ha npHHu,Hna 
o6pa3etj-Konue, hhjito Bpi,3Ka Tem>pBa me ce roaciuiBa? 

Bcbhihoct AaHHHTe 3a KaHJie-rpa^a b StnrapcKOTO flyxoBHO 
HacjieACTBO ca ockb/hth, a ocbch TOBa h HeH3BecTHH nopa/ni 



354 



rocnoflCTBamoTO Bee ome MHeHHe, ne neceHHHTe cSophhhh Ha BepKOBHH- 
rojioraHOB ca MHCTH(j)HKaLi,HJi. OHOBa, KoeTO Moace na ce Haynn ot 
BBBeneHHre b HayHHO oSptmeHHe TeKCTOBe Ha "Bena CnoBeHa" (necHH h 
"TOJiKyBaHHa" Ha CBntpacamHTe ce b Tax CTapnHHH nyMH), rjiacn: "Kaiijie: 
6hji rpa/i roneM, b kohto ceneji Hivta rj,ape; MHoro nbTH TyKa cjieBann 
3MeiOBeTe ot HeSeTO h ra romaBan Hjua ijape". Cbihhjit rpa/i e BnncaH 
ome c HMeHaTa Kanuija h Eena epada: "Bena rpana: 6hji nponyeH ne 
flOxoflanH K>AHTe b Hero, Ta yhhjih HMa iiapa 3aHajrreTo; Kanuija: 3Hann 
B eJ i". 17) 

KaKBO HaynaBaivie ot OHe3H necHH bbb "Bena GnoBeHa", b kohto e 
cnoMeHaT Kaitue rpana? OcBeH HMeTO Ha BJianeTejia h Ha rpana, HaynaBaMe, 
ne Kanjie e H3nnrHaT "Ha noneTy", b cbcchctbo c nemepa: ",H,a cjie3eTe npjry 
Ha noneTy, (|)b KaiiJie rpana. H Ba neKa Hjua tjape (...) Cjichh momh Ha 
noneTy, Ha noneTy (J3 Kanjie rpana, ,H,e rn neKa Hivta u,ape. H rn Kapa (pacp 
3eMHa nemepe, Ta Ha Bora KypSaH KOJieT...". HaynaBaivie ome, npn no- 
BHHMaTejiHO BraeacnaHe b TeKCTa Ha Ta3n h Apyrn necHH, b kohto ce 
cnoMeHaBa 3a rpanoBe (cmapa epada, noea epada, eyjiejua epada), 
HeHaBOBaHH noHMeHHO, 3a opraHH3HpaHO no onpenejieH HanHH 
npocTpaHCTBO, CB3naneHO no BOJurra Ha Bora n cbc CBnencTBHeTO Ha 
CBinecTBa, kohto HHec Snxivie OKanecTBHJiH KaTO mhthhhh. He to e mjicto Ha 
npoxoAHMOCT Meacny MepapxHHHO o6Btp3aHH CBeTOBe, nocemaBaHO ot 
CBmecTBa (3MeHOBe, iohh), kohto H3nBJiH3BaT pojurra Ha 6o>khh noanaHHiiH. 
He Te3H ocoSeHOCTH Ha Kanjie rpana npaBaT bb3mo>kho h npeHacaHeTO Ha 

HOBeK (H36paHO HOBeiHKO CBIHeCTBO - Hjua Ijape) B flpyTH H3MepeHH3 

(Eoeoeume capau), KaKTO h BptmaHeTO My oSpaTHO. He KaiiJie epada e 

M3CTOTO, KbfleTO oSflapeHHJIT CBC 3HaHH3 HOBeK, HHHTO oSeKTHBHpaH H3pa3 

e KHHraTa, oie/i 3aBpBiiiaHeTO ch pa3BHBa MHorocTpaHHa neHHOCT: KyjiTOBa, 
o6pa30BaTejiHa, npnjioacHa. noanenHaTa e CBo6pa3eHa c noflflBpacaHeTO Ha 



355 



acHBOTa - rpa^ocTpoHTejiCTBO, o6pa6oTKa Ha 3eMa, OTrjieac/iaHe Ha >khbothh, 
npaBeHe Ha "nncTa Jie6a" h "pyMHO bhho". 19) C flpyrn flyMH Kanjie, rpafltT 
Ha napa, e MacTO 3a CBemeHOfleHCTBne. Hpe3 o6pa3a Ha to3h rpa^ e 
OHarjie/ieHa H/ieaTa 3a cbBMecTaBaHe Ha CBemeHOTO npocTpaHCTBO c 
OTroBopHaTa BJiacT b 3eMHH ycjiOBHa. JleKCHKanHaTa h (JDyHKnHOHajmaTa 
6jih30Ct etc CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa Kaiijiac e oneBn/nia, ho 3a jx& 6i>Ae Ta 
oSocHOBaHa no HaiHH, ySeflmejieH 3a ctBpeMeHHHa yneH, 6h TpaSBano jx& 

nOTtpCHM ^OKa3aTeJICTBa H3BI>H ^HCKpeAHTHpaHOTO StJirapcKO AyXOBHO 

HacneACTBO, noSpaHO b ffBacia TOMa Ha "Be^a CjiOBeHa". KoeTO 03HanaBa jx& 
ce HacoHHM k-bm H3AHpBaHe Ha HayHHO npneMJiHBH 4>aKTH 3a HannnHeTO Ha 
CBemeHa nnaHHHa y Hac hjih noHe Ha ycBoeHH npocTpaHCTBa 3a 
CBeuieHOAeHCTBHe, kohto Ha (JDymcnHOHajiHO h Ha jieKcmcajiHO paBHHme 
OTBeac/iaT icbm Bpi,3KaTa Kaiijie-KaHJiac. TtpcHM rn b npoyHBaHHaTa Ha 
StJirapcKH apxeoji03H, eTHorpa(J3H, (Jjojikjiophcth, HCTopnini, jiHHrBHCTH. 

CeemeHaTa luianMHa Kaiijiac b 3HaHHeTO Ha 6i>JirapHTe 

3a Kaiijiac KaTO CBemeHa njiaHHHa StJirapme y3HaBaT ome npe3 
Bi,3pa>KflaHeTO - ot CTaraaTa Ha PaKOBCKH "CypBaKH hjih Cyp-CnBa 6or, 
npa3HHK cnaBHM BtoSme b EBJirapna ot Hapo^a Ha HoBa ro/nnia b jxqyl cb. 
Bacnjina, 1-ro aHyapna", nySnHKyBaHa b nbpBna Spoil Ha en. "EtJirapcica 
CTapnHa" npe3 1865 r. "B hh^hhckoto Han-CTapo BeporonoBeflaHHe Cuea e 
e^HO ot TpnjiHHHOTO (TpHMypTH=Tponna) tsxho SoacecTBO, Epaxjua, Buiimy, 
Cuea. (...) Eto mo Ka3BaT HH^HHCKHie SoroanoBnn 3a TponnaTa ch: "KoraTO 
ca CTaHanH neTHpnHanceTTe CBeTOBe c ocTa (axe), Koa MHHyBa npe3 Tax n&jx 
njiaHHHaTa Kailaca=Kanjiaca, ToraBa ce noaBHJi Ha Btpxa Ha Hea njiaHHHa 
mputmna (triengle) Hohh h b Hohh - JiHHraMa. Toibn JlHHraM (^tpBO 
acHBOTa) HMaji Tpn Kopn; nbpBaTa h HaH-BBHKaniHaTa e 6hji Epaxivia, 
cpe/iHaTa 6hji Bnumy, a HaH-BtTpeniHaTa, Han-KpexicaTa, 6hji CnBa; n 



356 



KoraTO TpHTe SoroBe ce otacjihjih, He ocTano flpyro b TpnbHrjia ocbch 
tojioto CTeSiro, KoeTO e BeKH no# HaSjnofleHHeTO Chbobo. CnBa 6or 
oSHTaBan Ha 3JiaTHaTa njiaHHHa Kannaca. TaMO HMano e^HO nnocKO 
HacTJiaHO mjicto, Btpxy KoeTO ce Haxoayja Qjjjm HeTBtpTHT (HeTHpoBrjiHii) 
ctoji, yicpaceH c acbct 6e3neHHH KaMeroi, h b cpe/iaTa Ila/iMa (lotus=jiOT, 
pacTeHne), Hocam b uQjjpaja ch TpnbHrjia, Hanaro h H3Bop Ha chhkhtc 
Hema. Ot toh3h Tpn-bHr-bJi H3Jia3Ba JlHHraM, 6or BeneH, kohto oSmaBa TaMO 
B eHHo". 20) 

HHTepec nopaac/ja peflaKiopcicaTa Sejieacica no# jihhhji, kojito 
npnnHCBa Ha HH^yncTicaTa MHTOJiorna HfleHTH(|)HnHpaHeTO Ha 3JiaTHaTa 
njiaHHHa Kannac c XHManaHre. CjiaBaTa Ha Kannac #o ach /nieineH ce 
no/ixpaHBa ot npe^CTaBH 3a cbjitoct. CnoMeHaBaHeTO h HacoHBa MHCbjrra He 
TOJiKOBa kbm #o6pe H3BecTHaTa reorpa(J3CKa (J)opMa (xpeSeT h Bptx), a klm 

HfleHTH(|)HKaLI,Ha C MHTHHHH nJiaHHHH, H3BeCTHH nOfl AP)TH HMCHa. IU,e 

npHnoMHHM, ne noA CHHMKaTa Ha o6Bi,p3aHHJi c jiereH/jH h BapBaHHa CKaneH 
MacHB, noMecTeHa b H3CJieflBaHeTO Ha AjieKcaH^tp Hjihcb "EtJirapnTe h 
nonyocTpoB XHH/iycTaH", ctoh cjie^HHaT Ha/ninc: "Bptx Kaimain (MaH^apa 
ot njiaHHHaTa Kannaca hjih CyMepy) b IIIaHrniyHr, 3aua^en TH6eT". 22) 
Maicap h ocKt^HH, noconeHHie cbq^quks ca hchhh c TOBa, ne HaivteKBaT 3a 
bb3mo>kho cbBna^eHHe Ha CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa Kannac etc CyMepy (flpyra 
CBemena njiaHHHa hjih Apyro HMe Ha cbuiiw caKpaneH oSeier?) h c 
XHManaHTe (peaneH oSeier Ha CBBpeMemiaTa reorpa^na). 

JleKCHKajiHH OTrjiacH 

06pa3i>T Ha CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa Hen3MeHHO BKJiiOHBa ctneTaHHe ot 
hskojiko pejie(J)HH (j)opMH, a HMeHHO - Bptx, CTbnajiOBH^eH ckjioh, nemepa 
h Bo^eH SaceiiH (n3Bop, e3epo, peKa) b cbceflCTBo. 23) Hen3MeHeH ejieMeHT Ha 
TOBa npocTpaHCTBO e h npncfaCTBHeTO Ha cbinecTBa c no-oco6eHa ctohhoct 



357 



b naMeTTa Ha HOBenecTBOTO - 6o>KecTBa, repon, xopa etc cnennajiHa mhch», 
noKJiOHHHu,H. He caMO nopa/pi cxoactbo Ha Ha3BaHHjrra, ho h no onHcamie 
Ha MHTonoeTHHHHa oSeKT h HeroBHTe oSmaTejiH KaHJie-rpa^a ot "Be#a 
CnoBeHa" 6e3 ctMHeHHe e o6pa3 ot ^yxoBHOTO hh HaaneflCTBO, kohto hoch 
b ce6e ch xapaKiepHCTHKHie Ha CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa Kannaca/ Kanjiac/ 
KaHJiaui. 

Kan/Khu 

JIioSonHTHO e jx& ce ycTaHOBH ^ann opoHHMtT Kannac (Kaitnaca, 
Kannain) ce cpema KaTO Ha3BaHne Ha peanHH reorpa(J3CKH oSeKin y Hac h 
koh ca Te? HiviaHKH npeABH/i MOflejrbT Ha Kaunac/Kaune, 6h TpaSBano jx& ce 
Brjieacflaivte b o6Bi,p3BaHeTO Ha jieicceMaTa hjih nacT ot Hea (-Kau, -kuu, -Khu) 
c npocTpaHCTBO, CBHeTaBamo eneMeHTH ot CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa, a HMeHHO - 
CKana (Bptx), nemepa, H3Bop. Ha ctmoTO ocHOBaHne, npon3THHaino ot 
(J)OHeTHHHHTe 3aKOHH Ha HaiHHa e3HK, OTrnacH ot aBJieHHeTO Kaiijiac/KauJie 
6nxa MorjiH jx& ce otkphst KaKTO b jieKceMH etc ctCTaBKa -Kau,/-Khii, Taxa h 
b JieKceMH c -Kan, -koji, -xyji, -zan/zon, -xoyn/xyji, - HcuiMejiMyji. 

JleKCHKanHOTO cbBna^eHHe, cxo^ctbo hjih 6jih30CT He e flocTaTbieH 
apryMeHT b noflKpena Ha onaKBaHeTO 3a HfleHTHHHOCT hjih flpyr bh# Bpi>3Ka 
Ha KOHKpeTHHa StJirapcKH reorpa(J3CKH oSeKT c KaHJiac/Kaiijie-rpafla. 3a,zj 
TonoHHMHTe 6h TpaSBano jx& ce OTKpnBa cxo^Ha (])yHKHHJi h/hjih 06m 
cmhcbji Meac/iy HemaTa, kohto Te Ha30BaBaT. no noBOfl Ha KaKBO 6nxa 
MorjiH j\& St^ai oSxBaHaTH b e^Ha CMHCJieHa (jjyHKHHOHanHa hjijioct 
npoempememeomo KaTO 3eMHa (J)opMa, MO^ejinpaHa no onpe/iejieH HannH, 
uoeeKhm b no3HHHjrra My Ha H36paHO OBJiacreHO ci>mecTBO (b pojuna Ha 
Boacnii cjiyra, nap-acpeu,, KyjiTypeH repoii, hokjiohhhk) h pe3ynmamume ot 
^eiiHOCTTa My? CaMHjrr >khbot jxa&& OTroBop Ha to3h Btnpoc. J\& ce acHBee, 
JX& ce noflfltpaca >khbot c onpe/iejieHO KanecTBO 03HanaBa jx& ce no3HaBaT n 



358 



cna3BaT onpefleneHH npaBHJia. 3HaHHaTa 3a acHBOTa, HeroBHa nporoxoA n 
ycneniHO (jjymcuHOHHpaHe HMaT SoacecTBeH xapaKTep. Te ce pa3npocTHpaT 
Btpxy bchhkh CTpaHH Ha HOBeniKOTO 6hthc - ot nepapxrorra, BpeMeTO, 

M3CTOTO H HaHHHHTe 3a oSmyBaHe Ha HOBeKa C BHCHIHTe CHJIH H CfaC 

ceSenofloSHHTe ch ^o 3aflOBOJiaBaHeTO Ha noTpeSHOCTHre ot xpaHa h 
noACJiOH. H bchhko TOBa b StJirapcKaTa Bepcna 3a (JDyHKHHjrra Ha CBemeHOTO 
npocTpaHCTBO (KoeTO noHTH 6e3 H3KJiK)HeHHe npneivia o6pa3a Ha njiaHHHa) 
ce ycBoaBa b Kanjie-rpa/ia hjih ce nonynaBa npe3 HeroBOTO cbynacTHe. 

Ha TepHTopnaTa Ha flHenma EtJirapna b aKTHBHa ynorpeSa ce 
cpemaT Ha3BaHH3Ta LUcihh Kan (3a CKaneH MaHacTHp b m. HaaH Kaa, c. 
OHoryp, rp. TepBen, 06. ,H,o6pHH), Kcihmuucku CKann (MecTHOCT KpaM c. 
KoBaneBHna, roneflenneBCKO, Btpxy kohto cnope/i apxeojioranecKH 
coH/iaacH ce OTKpnBaT KyjiTOBH nnoma/ocH c yjien KaTO ejieMenr ot 
TpaKHHCKO CBeTHJinme), KaiiJihK (neconapK Kpaii ILneBeH, Hocem 
Ha3BaHHeTO Ha eflHOHMeHHa nemepa). CnopeA CBBpeMeHHaTa StJirapcKa 
eTHMOJiorna KaiiJihK e Typcica Aywa, npeBOfl Ha no-crapoTO StnrapcKO HMe 
Ha MecTHOCTTa KaMeneij hjih KaMenna donuna. Cxo/hth TBtp/ieHHa ce 
pa3npocTHpaT h Btpxy ninpoKO ynoTpeSaBaHOTO y Hac Tpa/nruHOHHO 
Ha3BaHne 3a H3Bop - KauHaK, KaiiHcme. Heica HanoMHHM, ne e^HO ot HMeHaTa 
Ha thSctckh e3HK Ha CKanHH (J)opMH b HenocpeflCTBeHa 6jih30Ct j\o 
CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa Kannac, no flaHHH Ha MyimameB, e "CtpneTO Ha 
BO/iaTa". HaniHST KaHHaK ohcbhaho HMa o6ma jieKCHKanHa ctCTaBKa c 
Kaiijiac, a Bepojrmo h c KanjibKa, Tbii KaTO npe# nemepaTa, b noflHoacneTO 
Ha CKanaTa h ro ^Hec SuHKa H3Bopne. JIornnHO e jx& ce flonycHe, ne aKO 
Kaiijiac (cbBMecTjmam KaMtica c BO^aTa npe3 Bptx, H3#Hram ce Ha# nemepa) 
e CbpneTO Ha BO^aTa, to bchhkh h3tohhhu,h Ha BO^a, H3BHpama ot 3eM»Ta, 
6h TpaSBano jx& no/wbpacaT Bpt3Ka c OHOBa cbjito mjicto h Ha jieKCHKanHO 
paBHHme. OaKTtT, ne c noconeHHTe TonoHHMH ca Ha30BaHH MecTa, 



359 



CBT>p3aHH c KyjiTOBa ^eHHOCT (e3HnecKH CBeTHJinma, xpncTHaHCKH xpaMOBe), 
Kt/ieTO xopaTa HflBaT, 3a #a ce noicajrr, npaBH bi>3mc»kho npeflncmoaceHHeTO 
3a ceMaHTHHHa o6Bi>p3aHOCT c raarojia Kan ce. Cmhcbjibt My OTBeayia kt>m 
pejiHrH03HH fleMcTBHa Ha noflxoflamo m»cto (b xpaMa-nemepa, b 
apxHTeKTypHO AOO(J)opMeHaTa nemepa Ha CKanHHa MaHacTHp), icb/ieTO ce 
H3noBaflBaT rpexoBeTe h Kb/ieTO npe3 pa3KanHue, mojihtbh h noflxoflamo 
noBe/ieHHe ce nocTHra noKannue. Cnopefl BapBaHHjrra Ha StJirapHre BO^aTa 
HMa H3KJiiOHHTejiHO Baaoia pona 3a oHucmeanemo KaTO 3a/rbJiacHTejieH 
eneMeHT b t.h. oSpe^H 3a npexoA- B TbpceHe Ha floica3aTejiCTBa 3a 
npaBHJiHOCTTa Ha HOBonoconeHaTa eTHMOJioraa ce HaTtKBaMe 3a nopefleH 
nbT Ha cbBna/iaHHa ot noKJiOHHHHecicaTa npaKTHica okojio Kanjiac. B 
TnSeTCKHa e3HK cfamecTByBa ^yviaTa Knmua, kojito 03HanaBa "oSHKanaHe c 
npocTpau,Ha, T.e. H3MepBaHe c tjuio Ha oSnKOJiKaTa Ha xpaivta. IIo to3h HanHH 
- jiaraHKH, CTaBaiiKH h npeMecTBaiiKH ce c Qjjjm hobchikh 6oh Hanpe#, 
xHJia/iH thScthh eacero/iHO oSxoac/iaT CBememifl Bptx KaHJiani". 

OcBeH no jiHHHa Ha neKCHKanHOTO cxoactbo (KauJiac-KauJie-Kan- 
KauJihK-KauHdK) npn Ha30BaBaHe Ha MecTa, kohto b StJirapcKOTO 3eMJiHme 
ca o63i>p3aHH ^o ach ^HeuieH c npaKTHKH, cbBna^amH hjih cxo^hh ct>c 
CBemeHOfleiicTBHe, b SuirapcicaTa e3HKOBa npaKTHKa HMa noTBtpac/ieHHe 3a 
npaKO CBOTHacaHe Ha CBemeHO mjicto (cbBna^amo b npeflCTaBHre Ha 
StJirapHTe etc CBemeHa nnaHHHa) c HeroBOTO HaHMeHyBaHe. 

TonoHUMhm Ceema eopa u nezoeume eeoepatpcKii npoeKi^uu 
B3aHMOBpi>3KaTa nuaHHHa-CBjrro npocTpaHCTBO Moace 6h HaM- 
cnojiyHJiHBO e OTpa3eHa b TonoHHMa Ceema eopa. ToBa, ne e OTHacaH klm 
MHoacecTBO njiaHHHH H3 HCTopHnecKOTO 3eMJiHme Ha StJirapHTe H TeXHHTe 
npe/mn, npeflH3BHKBa nHTaHeTO kojiko CBemeHH njiaHHHH HMa TaM, jj,aim Te 
e/iHOBpeMeHHO hjih noaneflOBaTejiHO hocjit TOBa onpefleneHHe, b KaKBa 



360 



noaneflOBaTejiHOCT h no hhh H36op? B ^peBHOCTra cnopefl Bacnji Mhkob 
Ha3BaHHeTO CBemeHa nnaHHHa hjih CBeTa ropa ce e OTHaca.no #o 
iuiaHHHCKaTa Bepnra Ha/i Poaocto. C^BpeMeHHOTO Pl TypcKO HMe TeKHp-^ar 
e SyKBaneH npeBOfl Ha jjpQBmw TonoHHM. ILnaHHHaTa OnHMn bt,b Bhthhhji 
(Mana A3Ha) ctmo e 6n.ua HapnnaHa CBeTa ropa. TaM ot VII iiohth ^o 
cpe/iaTa Ha XI BeK e HMano MHoacecTBO MaHacTHpn h rojiHMa MOHamecKa 
kojiohhs, cjie/i KoeTO TonoKHMtT ce 3aKpenBa 3a iuiaHHHara Atoh Ha 
XanKH^HHecKHa nonyocTpoB. Ceema eopa ce Hapnna Han-n3TOHHaTa nacT Ha 
XanKH^HHecKHa nonyocTpoB. TonoHnivrbT Amon e npeflCTaBeH KaTO rptHKH, 
etc 3HaneHHe "6e36o>KHHLi,H". KaTO TaKHBa rbpuprre ca OKanecTBJiBajiH 

TpaKHTe, APCBHH 5KHTeJIH Ha Te3H 3eMH. IlaK TaM nO TOnOHHMHHHH H3BOpH 

ce ycraHOBJiBa StJirapcKO npncfaCTBHe ome npe3 paHHOTO cpeflHOBeKOBHe. 
Kora tohho hmcto CBeTa ropa o(J3HHHajiHO ce npeHaca ot Mana A3Ha 
(OnHMn) Ha Atoh, OTKora ^ampa ^yxoBHHjrr >khbot Ha nojiyocrpoBa n jx&jm 
toh He HaanefljiBa cBeTH MecTa ot npeflxpncTHJiHCKO BpeMe e Btnpoc, Btpxy 
kohto Aon-bJiHHTejiHO Tpa6Ba #a ce noMHCJin. cDaKT e, ne Ha onpeflejieH eTan 
Atoh CTaBa npHBJieKaTejieH 3a MOHamecKnre cpe/ni, kohto 3anoHBaT jx& ce 
3acejiBaT TyK. Han-CTapnaT MaHacrap (BennKaTa naBpa "Cb. AraHacHH 
Atohckh") e B"b3HHKHaii npe3 X b. C BpeMero cpe# xpncTHaHCKHTe Hapo^n 
("no noAoSna Ha AroHCKaa ropa" no pyMwiQ Ha PaKOBCKn) bcjiko CTpynBaHe 
Ha MaHacTHpn b onpeflejieHa njiaHHHCKa oSnacT 3anoHBa j\& ce ocmhcjih, a h 
jx& ce Hapnna CBeTa ropa. Btpxy TepHropHjrra Ha ^HeniHa BtJirapna Bee ome 
ce na3n cnoMenbT 3a MHoacecTBO MaHacTHpn ot BpeivteTO Ha Btopoto 
StJirapcKO napcTBO KpaM CnHBeH. ToBa e CnHBeHCKaTa CBeTa ropa. CBeTa 
ropa Kpaii TtpHOBrpafl b cbccactbo c HapeBeu, npo/rbJiacaBa h £0 £Hec ,zja 
OHarneAaBa cbBMecTaBaHeTO Ha ^yxoBHa h CBeTCKa BJiacT npe3 6'bJirapcKOTO 
Cpe^HOBeKOBHe. KaTO na3HTeji Ha ^yxoBHaTa Tpa^Hnna npe3 TypcKOTO 
PoSctbo ce yTBtpac/iaBa t.h. Co(|)HHCKa CBeTa ropa. Ha/i c. ilro^HHa (fleB.) 



361 



eflHa BHCOHHHa, Btpxy kojito jinnaT cjieflH ot utpKBH h flpyra nocrpoHKH, ce 
HapHna ot StJirapHTe-MOxaMe/iaHH Ceema 2opa. 26) 

Tohohumu, npomeodnu om Kphcm, u mnxnama cbomneceHocm chc 
ceemu Mecma y nac 

TonoHHMH, npoH3BefleHH ot jieicceMaTa Kphcm (Kphcma, Kphcmoe 
ephx, Kphcmoea Topa, Kphcmeif), ctmo ca flOKa3aTejiCTBO, ^e Ha30BaHHTe c 
Tax npefleJiH ca CBi>p3aHH c npeflCTaBH 3a cbjitoct. KptCTbT KaTO "npiipofleH 
koa" no/ixpaHBa jiereH^HTe, npeflaHmrra h oSocHOBaBa HaHMeHyBaHeTO. "H 
npe3 cpe/iHHTe BeKOBe necTO ce cpemaT Ha3BaHHa, kohto ctojit bi,b Bpt3Ka c 
BtHinHHa bh/i Ha msctoto. CKHJiima npe3 X b. cnoMeHyBa b CTapa njiaHHHa 

M3CTOTO KjIHflHOH - (K>u£l5lOt)), KOCTO 3HaHH KJIIOH - KptCTeil,, T.C MJICTO, 

rfleTO ce npecnnaT ffse bhcohhhh". IIoaoShh npHMepH, kohto 
CBH/ieTejiCTBaT b noji3a Ha ^onycKaHeTO 3a HanHHHe Ha MHoacecTBO cbcth 
npocTpaHCTBa no HaniHre 3eMH, ce noTBtpac/iaBaT h ot OTHOineHHeTO Ha 
CfaBpeMeHHHa StJirapHH (cTpoHTencTBO, noKJiOHHHHecTBO, KyjiTypeH 
TypH3tM) kbm MecTHOCTTa Kp-bcroBa ropa b PoAonHTe. 28) IlpHMepHTe MoraT 
j\& 6i>AaT H3noji3BaHH c orae/i Ha eBeHTyanHaTa hm npHnacTHOCT kbm 
KaHJie/Kaiijiac b cbfltpacaTejieH iuiaH, ocoSeHO aKO ce npoBH/ni HaicaKBa 
CTeneH Ha jieKCHKanHO (-kciuji/-kjiu) cxoactbo Meac/iy noconeHaTa neKceMa h 

KjIHflHOH. 

Ci.BpeMeHHH apxeojiorHHecKH noAaTKH h thxhoto "TOJiKyeamie" 
b jiereHAHTe Ha StJirapHTe 

C hskojikoto TonoHHMa (Kaua, KauntK, Ceema zopa, Kphcmoea 

ZOpa) KOHTO HeflByCMHCJieHO o6Bl>p3BaT M3CTOTO C IipeflCTaBH 3a CBJITOCT, 

npHMepHTe 3a oSeKTH Ha Hama TepHTopna, HanoMHamH etc cbos penecj) 3a 
CBemeHaTa miaHHHa, He ce H3nepnBaT. ,H,OTyK eBemyanHHTe napanejin 6axa 



362 



TtpceHH Ha jiHHrBHCTHHHa ocHOBa. HMa jih oSane TaKHBa reorpa(J3CKH 
oSeKTH, hhhto HaBBaHHa HaMaT Hnmo o6mo c jieKceMara Kau (KaHJie/Kaiijiac) 
hjih c flpyrn neKceMH KaTO cenm h Kphcm, ho npeflaHHjrra rn o6Btp3BaT c 
npeACTaBH 3a cbstoct? 

H3KJiiOHHTejiHO nojie3eH b T-bpceHeTO Ha OTroBopn no to3h Btnpoc e 
TpyfltT Ha BacHJi MapKOB "Cneflnre Ha Bora", tt>h KaTO hh npe/uiara 
onncaHHe Ha njiaHHHCKH penecj) no jihhhh BnenaTJieHna ot TepeHHH 
npoyHBaHna b Kpaa Ha 90-Te roflHHH Ha XX h ntpBHre ro/nnrn Ha XXI BeK. 
Toii e HanncaH no apxeojiorHnecKn, jiHHrBHCTHHHH (tohohhmhhhh) h 
eTHorpa(J)CKH (jiereH^n h npeflaHna) H3Bopn, OTHacamH ce ro BnenaTJiaBamn 
CKanHH (J)opMH b CTapa nnaHHHa (HaM-BHCOKaTa CKanncTa nacT c BtpxoBeTe 
lOjupyKHcui, Hynyji, BacuJiboe), Pnna (Lfapee ephx), IIhphh (IJonoecKomo 
e3epo, BtpxoBeTe Kpcmee deop, Momuh deop h JJotcemaJi), Poflonnre 
(cKanHna MacHB Lfapeeu nopmu). Ocbch Tax no/ipoSHO ca npoyneHn npe3 
Cbmns HHTepAHcnnnjiHHapeH no^xofl o6eKTH b oSKptaceHneTO Ha 
ropenoconeHHTe xpeSeTH n BtpxoBe, Kb/ieTO ce OTKpnBaT CKann, nemepn, 
H3Bopn, e3epa, peKH h ocTpoBneTa, o6Btp3aHH c jiereH^H 3a OTBJiHnaHe Ha 
MOMa ot 3Men hjih 3a Kpann MapKOBH noflBH3H. 29) 

npe^H jx& npaBHM KaKBHTO n jx& Shjio npeflnojioaceHHa 3a njiaHHHH 
no HaniHTe 3eMH, 6ejui3aHH ot npe^CTaBaTa 3a cbjitoct, HeKa jx& npoaneflnM 
onncaHneTO Ha npnpoflHaTa cpe^a c bchhkh OHe3n no/ipoSHOCTH, npe3 
kohto HaSjnoAaTejiHHaT aBTop npe/iaBa jihhhhtc ch BnenaTJieHHa. Cbocto 
TepeHHO HaSniOAeHHe MapKOB 3anoHBa c oSxoac/iaHe Ha Haii-BHCOKaTa 
CKanncTa nacT Ha CTapa njiaHHHa, Kb/ieTO ce Bi>3BHcaBaT BtpxoBeTe 
K)MpyKHan, Hynyji, Maparn^nK, BacnjibOB. 3a OTnpaBHa TOHKa Ha 
HaSjnofleHHeTO ch H36npa b. Hynyn, a b TtpceHe Ha no/ipoSHOCTH ot pejie(J3a, 
kohto "oHarjieAaBaT" TeKCTa Ha jiereHflnre h npeflaHHjrra, pa3npocTnpa 
norjie/ia ch Ha h3tok h 3ana/i no Shjioto, KaKTO h Ha ceBep h ior no 



363 



CKJiOHOBeTe. "Ome npn ntpBHa orae/i Ha TepeHa ce HaTtKHaxMe Ha 
opHrHHanHO apxHTeKTypHO cfaoptaceHne, o(J)opMamo Haii-BHCOKaTa nacT Ha 
Btpx Hynyji KaTO deycm-bnama 3eMJiena nupaMuda. Ha noBtpxHOCTia Ha 
TepeHa jiHnenie chjiho (])parMeHTHpaHa TpaKHHCKa KepaMHKa. K)>kho - b 
noflHoaaieTO Ha Btpxa, ce HaSniOflaBaT oepojumt KcuueHHu 6noKoee, CBbp3aHH 
ot jiereH^HTe c Tpane3HTe Ha repoa, KaKTO h CKanHHa 3cicjioh, onpeflejiaH 
KaTO KpanH MapKOBO xaHne.(..) B HaM-BHCOKaTa ch nacT CBeTHJinmeTO e c 
Kp-bzna (popjua, c ^HaMeTtp 10 MeTpa, oSrpa/ieHO ot HeBHCOKa KaMemio- 
3eMJieHa Kpenuda. Ot ior, h3tok h K)ro3ana/i, 3HaHHTejiHO no-HHCKO ce 
HaMHpa Apyra tuioufadKa, kojito ro oSxBama KaTO nojiyKptrjia dhsa c 
fltJiacHHa 120 m. h uinpHHa 10 m. Ta ctmo b Kpaa ch e yKpeneHa c KpenH^a. 
Ha 3ana/iHaTa nacT Ha Btpxa Seine ycTaHOBeHa TpeTa n/ioujadKa, b 
Meac/iHHHa BHCOHHHa Meac/iy Haii-BHCOKaTa xp-bzna h nojiyKptrjiaTa HHCKa 
nacT Ha CBeTHJiHHieTO. Ta cbmo e c nonyKp-bzJia cpopjua.i---) Ako ot Haii- 
BHCOKaTa (nacT?) Ha CBeTHJinmeTO na Bptx Hynyn ce norae/pie Ha 3ana/i, 
xopH30HTbT ce onpeflejia ot flbjirroi pn/i Ha BacnjibOBCKaTa njiaHHHa, Kb^eTO 
Bbpxy e/iHH aHanorHHeH, chjiho H3»BeH Konycoeuden Bpbx, ce HaMHpa 
cnope/i Hapo/iHaTa jiereH/ja BaTtpHaTa Mejimma, 6e3 jx& ce yroHHaBa hhji e 
Ta. ^Hec TyK Ha TepeHa ce HaSjno/iaBa pa3cnn, c ^HaMeTbp okojio 20 m. npn 
HanpaBeHHTe npe3 90-Te toahhh apxeojiorHnecKH coH^aaai Seine OTKpHTa 
4>parMeHTHpaHa TpaKHiicKa KepaMHKa h e^HH phmckh fleHapnii. no CBefleHHa 
Ha MecTHOTO HaceneHHe BbTpe b KpbrjioTO noMememie e HMano H3npaBeHH 
uemupu ozpoMHu KciMhKa, Moace 6h nacT ot MeranHraa apKa.{.--) Bcmuhoct 
CfaoptaceHneTO e nacT ot BHyniHTejieH ^peBHOipaKHHCKH nocenuujeH 
KOMtweKc, pa3nojioaceH Bbpxy Shjioto Ha BHCOKonnaHHHCKH pnji, b 
noAHoacneTO Ha Bpbx BacnjibOB. CTaBa /jyvia 3a Monnia TpaKHHCKa Kpenocm, 
BepoaTeH nneMeHeH uenrbp, c TpoiiHa KpenocTHa cmena h c ifumadejia b 
HaM-BHCOKaTa ii nacT. Hexponoji ot nnocKH hhctobh rpoSoBe e pa3nojio»ceH 



364 



no pii/ia, K»KHO ot Hea h b caMOTO noflHoacne Ha Bptx BacHJibOB. Cne^H ot 
otkphth acejie3HH pydmiifu ce HaSjiiOflaBaT Meac/iy Kpenocrra h HeKponona. 
rpoSnmaTa ce HapnnaT ot mccthoto HaceneHHe "ejiHHCKH"(...) Be3 
ctMHeHHe HaM-rojiaM HHTepec b to3h apxHTeKTypeH, jiereH/iapeH h 
TonoHHMHneH KOMiuieicc npeflCTaBJiaBa BacHJibOB - LJapeB Bpbx". 

Bbpxy reorpa(j)CKaTa KapTa Ha BbJirapna HaM-BHCOKaTa nacT Ha 
BajiKaHa Meac/iy .HceHCKHJi h PaSnHiHHa npoxofl e npeflCTaBeHa npe3 
HaHMeHyBaHHaTa KanocJDepcKa, npoflbJiaceHa na 3ana/i ot TpoaHCKa h Ha 
ceBepo3ana/i ot BacnjibOBCKa nnaHHHa. Tpa/iHHHOHHaTa tohohhmhji onncBa 
pejie(J3a okojio Haii-BHCOKHJi CTaponjiaHHHCKH Bpbx c Ha3BaHHa, H3BeayiaHH 
ot h cbxpaHeHH npe3 enoca 3a Kpann MaKpo. Cnope/i H3CJieflOBaTej«i 
norjie/ibT ot pa3nojio>KeHHa b ceBepHHTe ckjiohobc Ha BanKaHa Bpbx Hynyn, 
HaconeH Ha lor, OTKpHBa hh3 ot BbpxoBe Bbpxy CKanHCTHa rpeSeH Ha 
njiaHHHaTa ot h3tok Ha 3ana/i b cjie^HaTa noaneflOBaTejiHOCT: Mapara/iHK, 
K)MpyKHaji (^h. b. Botcb), KpbCTHHTe, KyneHHTe (ManbK h Fojijim), 
AM6apHi],a h XapiviaHHTe. tfeoieflOBaTejiCKHJiT norae/i He ce orpaHHnaBa 
caMO Bbpxy to3h 6jiH3bK xopH30HT, ho ce HacoHBa h ^aJien Ha/iojiy Ha ceBep 
h ior no CKJiOHOBeTe Ha CTapa njiaHHHa, 3a jx& OTKpne hobh 
MHoro3HanHTejiHH ot rne/pia TOHHa Ha MHTOJiornaTa (J3opMH ot 3eMHna 
penecj). B ceBepHna ckjioh Ha njiaHHHaTa KyviaHHHa (ome e^Ha 
MopcJDOJiornHHa eAHHHu,a ot tsjioto Ha EaracaHa), b MecTHOCTTa CTeHHTO 
(pn/i, kohto ce cnycKa ot nenrpajiHOTO ocTpo Shjio Ha KyviaHHHa KbM 
CKanHCTaTa flOJiHHa Ha p. HepHH OcbM) ce HaMHpa t.h. Kpann MapKOBa 
AynKa. IIo jihhhh BnenaTJieHHa Ha aBTopa tji "npeflCTaBJiaBa orpoMHa 
nod3eMHa 3cwa c noHTH npaBHJiHa Kph2Jia (jjopivia. CTeHHTe h ce cbSnpaT 
KaJudaHoeudHo Harope b tojijim KpbrbJi OTBop. H3TOHHaTa CTeHa e npoSnra 
(...) h npe/iCTaBJiaBa HMno3aHma ecTecTBeHa CKanHa apKa". 



365 



Die/pcaTa kbm kwrhhtc ckjiohobc ^ooSoraraBa no/ipoSHOCTHTe b 
e^Ha 3aBtpnieHa, CHMeTpHHHa no CBOjrra komho3hhhji, KapTHHa: 
"OShkhobcho H3CJieflBaHHTe nponycKaT KapTHHaTa ot K»KHaTa CTpaHa Ha 
nnaHHHaTa, leb^eTO cbiijo ce HaSniOflaBaT b noflHoacneTO h, Btpxy H3aBeHH 
CKanHH TepeHH, Meacmum.Hu mpciKuucKu jtcepmeeHuiju, CBtp3aHH c Kpann 
MapKOBHa jiereH/iapeH enoc. (...)• HaM-rojiaM HHTepec ot H3BecTHHTe hh 
jiereH^H npeflCTaBJiaBa xa3H 3a OcTpo Stp/io, KpaM rp. ConoT. (...) OcTpo 
Stpflo e QffUR CKanHCT 3aBi>pnieK Ha jxhwhr pun, cnycicaiH ce ot neHTpanHOTO 
Shjio Kpaii Bptx AMSapnna Ha lor. CneHHaneH HHTepec npeflCTaBJiaBa hmcto 
Ha pn/ja BtB BHCOKaTa My nacT - 3ajrbMHHa" (3anMOKCHc). 

floTOJiKOBa, aokojikoto He pa3nojioaceHOTO b nnaHHHara CBeTHJinme, 
a caMaTa nnaHHHa KaTO rocTonpneMa cpe^a 3a KynTOBa achhoct e 
mhmoxoaom cnoMeHaBaHa bbb Bpt3Ka c npoSneivia 3a CKanHO roceneHHTe 
naMeTHHHH npn H3aneflBaHe Ha MeranHTHre b BtJirapna, CMjrraMe 3a 
nojie3HO npHBeac/iaHeTO Ha npHMepH h ot Apyrn SuirapcKH njiaHHHH. 
H^eHTHCJDHHHpaHKH npHpoflHara cpe^a okojio IIonoBO e3epo b IIhphh c 
ApeBHOTpaKHHCKo CBeTHJiHme, MapKOB cnoMeHaBa cneflHHTe hoapoShocth: 
"Benie perHCTpnpaH orpOMeH KaTO o6eM nupaMudanen TpaKHHCKH 
jfcepmeeHUK, pa3nojioaceH Ha Btpxa Ha KaisieHeH 6jiok, neacam Ha 
ceBepoH3TOHHHa Spar Ha IIonoBO e3epo. Kpaii Hero 6axa otkphth 

H3KyCTBeHO BffbJlSaHH B CKajIHTe KptrJIH HMU H TaKHBa c (J)opMaTa Ha 
HOBeiHKH CTtnKH". 

Pnjia cbiho flaBa npHMep 3a o6Btp3aHH c jiereH^H caKpanHH o6eKTH 
ot npe/ixpHCTHaHCKO BpeMe. E/ihh ot Tax e Kpann MapKOBa CKana nojx 
LJapeB Bptx (b 3ana/iHHa jym Ha nnaHHHaTa, n&j\ c. BncTpHna, 
BjiaroeBrpa/iCKo): "CaMaTa cicana npeflCTaBJiaBa cm-bnajioeudno H3flHram ce 
ot 3ana/i Ha h3tok KaMtK, pa3nojioaceH KpaM eflHH ot MHoroSpoHHHre 
H3Bopn Ha peKa BncTpHna, Btpxy 3anaflHHa ckjioh Ha HapeB Bptx. Ot 



366 



K»KHaTa My CTpaHa ce HaSniOflaBa HercmjiMa nuuia. Btpxy HaM-ropHaTa 
njioma/oca H3KycTHO ca rofltJiSaHH hskojiko hmu c KJitrna hjih ejirnicoBH/iHa 
4>opMa. EflHa ot Tax e c no-oco6eHa (jjopivia Ha "jrbaama" c Kbca /ip-bacKa. IIo 
uajiOTO npoTeaceHHe Ha CKajiara b nocoKa H3TOK-3ana/i, ot Han-BHCOKara 
HacT KtM ApyrHTe ffBQ no-HHCKH njioiqadKu ce HaSniOAaBaT HaKOJIKO HIHpOKH 
ynen (...) HHiuaTa-nemepa, pa3nojioaceHa b K»KHaTa CTeHa Ha Kaivrbica, He ce 
KOMeHTHpa ot jiereH^aTa TyK, ho Ta npncbCTBa b noHTH bchhkh naMeTHHHH 
ot Ta3H rpyna h b nacT ot jiereH^HTe e KOMeHTHpaHa KaTO acHJiHmeTO Ha 
KpajiH MapKo". 34) 

OeHOMeHBT Ijapeeu nopmu, c kohto b H3aneflBaHeTO na MapKOB e 
npe/iCTaBeHa Pomona njiaHHHa, e BnenaTJiaBam c noBTapamoTO ce 
CbBMecTaBaHe Ha npnpoflHH flaflenocTH ( C KaneH MacHB, nemepa no# Hero) h 
CJiQffn ot KyjiTypHa ^eiiHOCT (TpaKHHCKa Mornjia h pa3BanHHH ot crpa/ja, 
BepoaTHO xepooH). Ton e onncaH etc cjie^HHTe hoapoShocth: "Pa3nojio>KeH 
e Ha okojio 3,5 km ceBepo3ana/iHO ot c. KoBaneBHua, Tone flejineBCKo h 
npe/iCTaBJiaBa ecTecTBeHa CKanHa apxa - MantK CKaneH moct, OTBoptT Ha 
kohto e opneHTHpaH Ha ceBepoH3TOK, kbm H3rpeBa Ha antHHeTO. ApKaTa ce 
HaMHpa b noHTH Haii-BHCOKaTa nacT Ha cmhnajioeudHo cnycKam ce Ha/iony 
xpeSeT, KbM BHyiuaBamoTO pecneKT CKanHO ac^pejio Ha p. KamiHa. 
EcTecTBeHHTe njioujadKu Ha xopcra ca oceaHH c MHoacecTBO (JDparaeHTH 
ptHHO H3pa6oTeHa KepaMHKa, ^aTHpama ot CTapoacejia3HaTa #o 
ejiHHHCTHnecKaTa enoxa. Ha to3h eTan ot npoyHBaHeTO e Tpy/jHO j\& ce 
onpe^eJiH /jajin to3h KepaMHneH MaTepnan e pe3yjrraT ot KyjiTOBH npaKTHKH 
h Btpxy no-HHCKHTe CKanHH nnoma/iKH, hjih e CBJieneH ot CKanHaTa 
njioma/pca, pa3nojioaceHa K)ro3ana/iHO h HenocpeflCTBeHO npe# CKanHaTa 
apKa. CaMaTa apKa ot K)ro3ana/i e bh/i mpaneij, pa3HiHpaBam ce npn 
ocHOBaTa. B fluiSonHHa HaBtTpe b CKanaTa ce o6pa3yBa ManKO noMemeHHe, 
HanoMHamo npnpoflHa nemepa, rpySo o(J)opMeHO OTrope KaTO ceod, 



367 



nojiOBHHaTa cera pyxHan. B nenrbpa Ha BtiipocHOTO noMemeHHe e 
pasnojioaceH zojihm KaMenen 6jiok - Moace 6h acepTBeHHK, Jieacam b KyjiTypeH 
njiacT". 35) 

OcBeH onncaHHTe flOTyK MerajiHTHH TpaKHHCKH CBeTHJinina, 
pa3nojioaceHH BtB bhcokhtc nacTH Ha roneMHTe hh njiaHHHH, MapKOB 
oSxoac/ia h oSckth no nuaHHHCKHTe ckjiohobc, kbm kohto e Haconen ot 
jiereH/iH h npeflaHH» h kohto BB3npHeMa KaTO nacT ot ropeonncaHHTe 
caKpanHH KOMnneKCH. OSinpTO e b HanHHa, no kohto ca o(j)opMeHH 
CBeTHJinmaTa. H TyK npn apxeojiornnecKna coH/iaac ce OTKpnBaT "cKajmn 
B-b3BHnieHna c ecTecTBeHa nupaMudaiina 4>opMa" (m. Momckh KaMtK Kpaii c. 
TojuiMa 5Kejia3Ha, TpoaHCKo); miouf adieu c pa3JiHHHa (J)opMa n BHCOHHHa, 
oceaHH c hmku n yjieu (m. Hnepa Kpan JlecH/ipjiH, TpoaHCKo), mponoee 
(ceflannina b m. MapKOBa CKana Kpan c. floneH, Tone flejineBCKo); CJie^n ot 
apxHTeKTypHa achhoct (yKpernieHne b Haii-BHCOKaTa nacT Ha CKanaTa b m. 
Hnepa, pyHHH okojio OTBopa Ha nemepaTa CapnHa ^ymca Kpaii YrbpHHH, 
CJie/iH ot MaHacTHpcKa crpa/ia Kpaii m. PyceH KaMtK #o c. PycoKacTpo). 
flocTa ntJiHa npe/iCTaBa 3a BH/ja Ha Te3H CBeTHJiHina JX3&& t.h. MapKOBa 
CKana Kpaii c. flojieH, Tone ^.ejineBCKO. Ocbch ^o6pe oraa/ieHaTa OTrope 
CKana c MHoacecTBO H3KycTBeHO Cb3fla/ieHH no npenemca Ha MapKOB 
B^JitSHaTKHH, B"b3npHeMaHH KaTO CJie/iH ot CTtnKaTa Ha KpajiH MapKO, 
CJie/iH ot KonHTOTO Ha KOHa My, ot HeroBaTa KonaHJi, ot cnH/pKHpa Ha 
KyneTO My, TyK ce OTKpnBa h Hemo yHHKaiiHO. ToBa e pyHOo6pa3eH 3HaK c 
4>opMaTa Ha KptCT, HanpaBeH Btpxy H3rjiafleHaTa noBtpxHOCT Ha KaMBKa Ha# 
CKajmaTa HHma. 36) 

HaSjnofleHHjrra ot TepeHHOTO oSxoayiaHe noTBtpac/iaBaT e^HH 
HeocnopHM (|)aKT, a hmchho HajiHHHero He npocTO Ha cxo^hh, a Ha 
CbBna^amH KaTO (j)opMa h ctneTaHHe Ha eneMeHTH CKajiHH KOMnneKCH BtB 

BCHHKH H3CJieABaHH OT MapKOB njiaHHHH. IiHpaMHflajIHO H KOHyCOBHflHO 



368 



o(j)opMeHH BtpxoBe, TepacnpaHH ckjiohobc, KaM6aHOo6pa3HH nemepn h 
CKajiHH hhuih, apKH, ctbjiSh, TpoHOBe toh onncBa b Pnna, IIhphh h 
Poflonnre, KaTO OT6ejia3Ba (BOfleH ot jiereHflnre h npeflaHHjrra), ne rn 
OTKpHBa He caMO no SnnaTa h b noflHoaaurra Ha BtpxoBeTe, ho h no 
CHnacaBamnre ce pn/iOBe. napajiejin3i>M ce OTKpHBa He caMO no OTHomeHne 
Ha MeranHTHHa KOMnoHeHT (pofloncicaTa CKajma apKa Lfapeeu nopmu h 
CKajmaTa apKa Btpxy CTeHaTa Ha nemepaTa MapKoea dynxa b BanKaHa, 
ocTpoBneTO b IJonoeomo e3epo b IlnpHH h IJonoea wanxa b Poflonnre, Ha 
Spera Ha p. BnmepHna). IIopa3HTejiHOTO e, ne Btpxy noBTapamnre ce 
npnpoAHH (J)opMH ce HacnarBaT noBTapamn ce cbOTBeTCTBHa ot 

TOnOHHMHHHO H JiereH^apHO-MHTHHHO eCTeCTBO. CaMHST aBTop TbpCH H 

noAnepTaBa Te3H cbBna^eHHa: "He 6hx ch no3BOJiHJi to3h TBtp/ie 
npocTpaHeH h b mhoto nyHKTOBe HecnrypeH aHanH3 Ha jiereHflnre h 
naMeTHHHHTe, CBi,p3aHH c HapeB Bptx b Pnna njiaHHHa, aico Te He 
KopecnoH^Hpaxa c TpaKHHCKH KyjiTOBH naMeTHHu,H, CBtp3aHH c flBa ^pyrn 
TonoHHMa, Ha kohto nona/piaxMe npn npoyHBaHnara ch - Bptx BacnjibOB 
(HapeB, HapcKH Bptx) b IleHpanHHJi EajncaH h UapeBH nopTH b 3ana/piHTe 
Po/ionH, KpaM c. KoBaneBHna". napanejirotM no jihhhji Ha TonoHHMHTe h 
CBtp3aHHTe c Tax jiereHfln MapKOB OTKpHBa n Meac/iy rinpHHCKHTe BtpxoBe 
okojio nnpicyca Ha IIonoBO e3epo KpaaeB ffsop, Momhh ffsop, Be36or n 
flaceHran n CTaponjiaHHHCKHTe BtpxoBe K)MpyKHan, MaparH^nic n "ocoSeHO 
c JiereH/iapHa uracbji, CBtp3aH c Bpi>x Hynyn h Kpann-MapKOBa /lynica b 
nnaHHHaTa KyviaHHna, naic b UeHTpaiiHHJi BanKaH". 38) 

Bb3 ocHOBa Ha HaMepeHHTe apxeojiorHnecKn MaTepnann (icepaMHKa, 
MOHeTH, KyjiTOBH npeflMeTH, cneflH ot on>H) b oSKptaceHneTO Ha 
H3CJieflBaHHTe CKajiHH KOMnneKCH b CTapa nnaHHHa, Pnna, IIhphh h 

POflOnHTe, aBTOptT rH HfleHTH(])HnHpa KaTO flpeBHOTpaKHHCKH MeranHTHH 

CBeTHJinma. Ton CBtp3Ba (JDymcnnoHnpaHeTO hm (ot 6poH30BaTa ^o KtCHO 



369 



ejiHHHCTHHHaTa enoxa) c pejiHrH03HaTa aKTHBHOCT Ha TpaKnre. HaMa #a 
KOMeHTHpaMe aBTopoBaTa HHrepnpeTanHa othocho TOBa Koe TpaKHHCKO 
SoacecTBO c KaKbB KyjiT e Shjio noHHraHO h koh BKJnoneH b 
apxeojiorHnecKHa coH/iaac oSeKT Ha Koe H3BecTHO /ipeBHOTpaKHHCKO 
CBeTHJiHHie CBOTBeTCTBa. He ne npoSjieMHTe Ha TpaKHHCKaTa penHraa ca 
ManoBaacHH hjih napanejiHTe c rptHKOTO, xctckoto h hh^hhckoto mhto- 
noeTHHHO HacneACTBO - npeKaneHO eKcnnoaTHpaHH. cDaKT e oSane, ne Te ot 
A^Jiro BpeMe ca npe^MeT Ha HayneH HHTepec. 3a Hac b cnynaa ocoSeHa 
npHTeraTejiHOCT HMa onncaHHeTO Ha npnpoflHHTe h cbceflCTBamHre c Tax 
apxHTeKTypHH jx&jxqroctvl, KaKTO h B-b3MO>KHOCTTa Te #a St^aT noA-noaceHH 
Ha hob npoHHT, BtBeacflam hobh HayrHH rjie^HH tohkh Btpxy ohcbhaho 
"AOKa3aHH" Heuia. 

IIoKa3aTejiHH 3a npeocMHanaHeTO Ha B3aHMOBp , b3KaTa npnpoAHO- 
KyjiTypHO ca \ij\qwiq Ha MapKOB othocho BO^emaTa pona Ha t.h. ot Hero 
"npnpofleH koa". no noBOA Ha MeranHTHOTO CBeTHJinme okojio IIonoBO 
e3epo toh Ka3Ba: "... CBeTHJinmeTO e Kptrno, ho He e apxHreicrypHO. To e 
npnpofleH koa nojx otkphto He6e h BepoaTHO 3a TaKbB e H3noji3BaH 
caKpajiH3npaHHaT HnpKyc Ha IIonoBO e3epo Ha Btpxa Ha IIhphh nnaHHHa. 
Hemo noBene! Bh TpaSBano jx& mhcjihm, ne apxHTeKTypHHTe penieHna Ha 
ApeBHOTpaKHHCKHTe CBeTHJiHma c Kptrtn nnaH caMO ro noBTapaT KaTO 
apxHTeKTypeH ko/t". He caMO KptrtT Ha unpicycoBOTO e3epo, a h otbopt>t 
Ha nponacTHaTa nemepa e BMMoacHHaT npnpofleH o6pa3en, noBTopeH npe3 
nnaHHpoBKaTa Ha ^peBHOTpaKHHCKHTe CBeTHJinma nojx otkphto He6e. 
CapHHa AynKa KpaM YrbpHHH e npHMep, kohto no ySeflHTcneH HanHH 
HJiiocTpHpa aBTopoBaTa H/iea 3a apxHreiaypHHa koa KaTO (j)opMajiHO 
noflpaacamie Ha npnpoAHHa ko#: "Okojio OTBopa Ha nponacTHaTa nemepa 
jinnaT pyHHH c OBaneH nnaH, oSrpaayiaiH ro ot BcaKb/ie (...) B cbceflCTBO 



370 



ct>c caMHa pt6 Ha OTBecHaTa cicana e o(J)opMeHa paBHa mioma/pca, ^o kojito 
ce CTHra no Tpn CTtnana HaflOJiy". 40) 

OcBeH reoMeTpHHHH, npHpoflHHjrr koa (aKO ce ct^H no npnMepnre 

Ha MapKOB), BKJIIOHBa H CTepeOMCTpHHHH (J)OpMH - KaMSaHOBHAHa, 

nojiyc(j)epHHHa, KOHycoBH^Ha, nnpaMH^ajiHa. IIo noBOfl Ha nemepaTa 
/JpaeaHuoeutfa Kpan c. DioaceHe, TeTeBeHCKO h OTpaaceHneTO Ha HenHaTa 
(J)opMa Btpxy KyjiTOBaTa apxHTeKTypa e Ka3aHO aneflHOTo: "ITbpboto Hemo, 
KoeTO HOBeK H3nHTBa npn BH/ja h, e CTpax n pecneKT ot meMeTHaTa 
BHCOHHHa n oSeMnre Ha KapcTa. CnenHanHO BHHMaHne TpaSBa jx& ce o6i>pHe 
Btpxy KaiviSaHOBHAHHa o6eM Ha nemepaTa, pa3innpjiBama ce npn /p>hoto h 
CTecHaBama ce npn OTBopa rope. EcTecTBeH npnpofleH (J3eHOMeH c (J)opMa, 
kojito me bh/ihm noBTopeHa npn CKanHHTe rpoSfflmn h npn rpoSHnre 
Kaisiepn Ha rpa/ieHHTe Kptrnn rpoSfflmH c KomepoBn/iHO noicpHTHe, KaKTO h 
b onncaHHeTO Ha npoHyrna KptrbJi xpaM Ha ,H,HOHHCHH-Ca6a3HH b 
TpaKHa". 41) 

ABTopoBaTa HHrepnpeTanHJi He no/uiara Ha cbMHeHHe 
KOMeHTnpaHHTe .zjOTyic pejie(J)HH (J3opMH (e3epHH3T Spar, rtpjiOTO Ha 
nponacTHa nemepa, BtpxtT, ckjiohkt, oSeMnre Ha npoxo^HH h nponacTHH 
nemepn) KaTO pe3yjiTaT ot ^enHOCTra na npnpoflHH chjih. cDopMaTa e 
3anMCTBaHa BnoaneflCTBne ot HOBeica npe3 no/ipaacaHHe, npn KoeTO 
npHpo^eH h apxnTeKTypeH koa ce yeflHaKBJiBaT. KaKTO noKa3Ba h caMH»T 
orneA, Te "cbacHrejiCTBaT" Ha e#HO h ctmo mjicto, BMnpneMaHO KaTO cbjito, 
npn KoeTO apxHTeKTypaTa flySjinpa npnpoflaTa. BnenaTJieHne ot po#a Ha 
"floSpe H3rjia/ieHa CKana", "H3KycTHO H3flT>Ji6aHH smkh" h np. HaBeac/iaT Ha 
MHCbJiTa 3a HOBeniKa HaMeca b "npHpoflHHJi koa" - mhcbji, OT/jaBHa 
H3peneHa h ot Apyrn rocjieflOBaTejinre Ha MerajiHTHHTe naMeTHnnn. 
Abtop^t npneMa, ne HOBeicbT He caMO no/ipaacaBa aocjiobho Ha npnpo/iaTa b 



371 



caicpajiHaTa apxnreiCTypa (npe3 (J)opMaTa Ha iuiaHa, Ha o6eMa), ho ne toh Ha 
usKaKbB eran yqacTBa b ^oo(])opMaHeTO Ha t. h. npnpo/ieH koa- 

npnpoAHHaT KOfl BnenaTJiaBa He caMO cbc cbohtc (J)opMH, ho h c 
TaxHaTa MHoro TOHHa HaconeHOCT cnpaMO nocoKHTe Ha CBeTa h ^BHaceHHeTO 
Ha HeSecHHTe Tena. KaK ce nojiynaBa no^oSHa opneHTHpaHOCT Ha CKanHH 
apKH, Ha BtpxoBe, Ha nemepHH otboph io,m onpefleneHn 3HannMH ot 
acTpoHOMHnecKa rjie^Ha TOHHa ctCToaHHa h ^BHaceHHa: paBHOfleHCTBne, 
CJTbHHecTOJiHe, H3rpeB, 3ane3? ApxeoacTpoHOMnnecicaTa xapaKTepncTHKa Ha 
oSxo/ieHHTe ot MapKOB oSeicrH noica3Ba, ne CKanHaTa apKa Lfapeeu nopmu b 
Poflonnre e opneHTHpaHa (ot npnpoflaTa?) b nocoKa, KoaTO ynaBa Ha 
xopH30HTa nponeTHHTe H3rpeBH Ha cjrbHneTO. IU,o ce oraaca j\o HaM- 
BHCOKaTa CKanHCTa nacT Ha CTapa njiaHHHa, npn orjieA Ha mjicto MapKOB 
H3BJiHHa cneAHOTO BnenaTJieHHe: "Ako ce Cbffa no MecTononoaceHHeTO, 
4>opMaTa h opHenranHaTa Ha njioma/pcnTe, to KyjiTOBHTe ^encTBHa BepoaTHO 
TpaSBa jx& ce CBtpacaT c rorpeBa, 3eHHTa h 3ane3a Ha cjrbHneTO. CjrbHneTO, 
KoeTO, rjie/iaHO ot TyK, noHTH npe3 nanoTO BpeMe Ha #eHa ce flBnacn Ha/i 
CKanHCTHTe BtpxoBe Ha njiaHHHaTa, CBtp3aHH c Kpann MapicoBna hhkbji ot 
jiereHflH". 42) 

CneA KaTO pa3nojiara c SoraTa CBBKynHOCT ot apxeojiorHnecKn 
naMeTHHu,H, apxeoacTpoHOMHnecKn ^aHHH, tohohhmh h H3Bopn Ha ycTHOTO 
Hapo/iHO TBopnecTBO, cfaSpaHH ot noconeHHTe Bene HaH-H3BecrHH njiaHHHH 
Ha TepHTopnara Ha ^HeniHa EtJirapna, MapKOB e CKJiOHeH #a noTBtp/iH 
npaBOMepHOCTTa Ha npe^CTaBaTa 3a HanHnneTO Ha CBemeHa njiaHHHa b 
^peBHa Tpajcna. IIo npHHnnn b CBeTOBHaTa MHronoeTHHHa Tpaflnnna 
BtpxtT Ha CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa e #om Ha 6ora (SoroBeTe). B noflHoacneTO Ha 
BtpxoBeTe h no CKJiOHOBeTe ce pa3nojiaraT CBeTHJiHinaTa, AO kohto 
acHBeeninaT b nojinre Ha njiaHHHaTa HOBeK ce roicaHBa, 3a jx& otjx&jxq noHHT h 
#a H3MOHH Hemo ot 6ora. Ta3H CTpyKTypHpaHOCT Ha npocTpaHCTBOTO no 



372 



BepTHKaji e H3pa3 Ha MepapxHaTa b oSmyBaHeTO Meac/iy SoroBe h xopa. 
BneHaTJieHHjrra Ha MapKOB ot TepeHHOTO oSxoac/iaHe ca, ne b Han-BHCOicaTa 
CKanHCTa nacT Ha BanKaHa cjie^H ot apxeojioranecKH MaTepnanH raMa, 
KoeTO 03HanaBa, ne Ha Ta3H BHCOHHHa He e Snna H3Bi,pmBaHa HHKaKBa 
KyjiTOBa ^eHHOCT. "KyjiTOBHTe MecTa, b kohto flpeBHHie TpaKH noHHiajin 
SoroBeTe ch, ce HaMnpann no hhckh BtpxoBe, b noflHoacneTO Ha CBemeHaTa 
njiaHHHa, aKO h Te jx& noBTapjrr KaTO Tonorpacjmji h MecTonojioacemie 
KOCMHnecKaTa njiaHHHa". 43) 

IIpeACTaBaTa, ne b 3eMHTe Ha ^HeiuHHTe StJirapn ce H3flnra CBemeHa 
njiaHHHa, He e HOBa. Ta oSnKHOBeHO ce npenjiHTa c npe^CTaBH 3a rojieMHHa, 
BHCOHHHa, cbstoct, npoH3THHama ot Henne SoacecTBeHO npHCtCTBHe, h e 
noAKJiaac/iaHa ot 3HaHHa, HflBamn ot ^bJiSoKa /ipeBHOCT. Ha Xepo^OT ce 
npHnncBa TBtp^eHHero, ne HaH-BHCOKara njiaHHHa b TpaKHa ce H3#Hra b 
3eM»Ta Ha Secnre, a Te, KaKTO e H3BecTHO ot cbBpeMeHHaTa HCTopnnecKa 
fleMorpa(J3Hji, oSnraBaT IIhphh. B no^Kpena Ha Ka3aHOTO ot /ipeBHorpi>nKHJi 
aBTop e H3noji3BaHO StJirapcKOTO ycTHO Hapo/nio TBopnecTBO. Cnope/i 
MapKOB b HaniHTe HapoflHH necHH h npeflaHHa IIhphh e onncaHa KaTO Han- 
CTapa h Haii-CBJiTa njiaHHHa, KoeTO My ^aBa Bi>3MO}KHOCTTa jx& H3Kaace 
npe/inojioaceHHTO ch, ne tji Moace #a ce BMnpneMa KaTO "e^mi CBoeo6pa3eH 
ApeBHOTpaKHHCKH OjiHMn". B StJirapcKa cpe^a oSane CMe H3npaBeHH npe# 
CHTyanna, b kojito 3a CTaTyTa "cBemeHa" MoraT jx& npeTeH/inpaT h Apyrn 
njiaHHHH. B"b3MO>KHOCTTa 3a npeHacoHBaHe Ha norjie#a ce fltJiacH Ha nyac/i 
KapTorpa(J3CKH H3Bop - 3ana/iHoeBponeHCKa KapTa Ha Hamme 3eMH ot 
kbchoto cpeflHOBeKOBHe, Kt/ieTO e OT6ejia3aHa CBemeHa njiaHHHa. Ilpn 
HaynHaTa HnrepnpeTanHJi Ha ^aHHH, cbSpaHH no BpeMe Ha KOMnjieKCHa 
Hayma eKcneflHUHa "LJeHipajieH BajiKaH 1999", HBaH XpncTOB a H3noji3Ba 
KaTO floni>jiHHTejieH H3Bop, 3a jx& HflenrH(J3HLi,Hpa oh3h jxkji ot 



373 



CTaponjiaHHHCKaTa Bepnra, kohto e H3BecTeH KaTO BacnabOBCKa njiaHHHa, c 
noconeHaTa Btpxy KapTaTa CBemeHa njiaHHHa. 

BcbmHOCT kojiko CBemeHH njiaHHHH HMa b EtarapHa h b 3eMHTe Ha 
HaniHTe npeauH, ocTaHajin h3bt>h noaHTHHecKHie rpaHHUH? EaHa, KoaTO 
3aaaBa Tonorpa(J3CKHa Moaea Ha bchhkh ocTaHajin njiaHHHH hjih hhjioto 
npocTpaHCTBO, oSnTaBaHO ot 6T>arapH, e noKpHTO cbc CBeiHemi njiaHHHH? 
CBeTOCTTa Ha onpeaeaeHH npeaean b onncaHHTe njiaHHHH KaTO ne jih e 
HeH3MeHHa TaxHa xapaKTepncTHKa. KaKTO h aa ce npoMeHa peanraaTa, Te 
3ana3BaT Bpt3KaTa ch c SoacecTBeHOTO npncbCTBHe. IfocaeaBaHeTO Ha 
MapKOB e neHHO c TOBa, ae to aoKyMemnpa npneMCTBeHOCT Meacay 
TpaKHHCKaTa Bapa h xpncTHaHCTBOTO no OTHOiueHHe Ha cbcth MecTa. B 
EaracaHa TOBa ca MHoaceciBOTO MaHacTHpn no ceBepHHie h loacHHie 
CKJiOHOBe, Meacay kohto 3acayacaBa jx& 6i>aaT cnoMeHaTH TpoaHCKHa h 
KanocJDepcKHa. IrtpBHaT e aoM Ha ayaoTBopHaTa HKOHa Eoropo/nrna 
TpoepyHHna, a caMOTO noaaepTaBaHe Ha pticaTa b xpHCTHaHCKaTa peaHiaia 
HMa rjibSHHHa Bpt3Ka c /ipeBHaTa Bapa 3a SoaoiaTa piaca. IIpeaMeTHa 
MeTa(j)opa Ha OTBopeHaTa kbm HeSeTO aaaH e aMaTa, roataSaHa Btpxy cicana 
- eaHH necTO cpeniaH (j)aKT npn MeranHTHHTe naivieTHHHH. BTopnaT e b 
CfaceflCTBO c m. 3ajihMuija, tohohhm, 3a kohto aBToptT flonycKa, ne Moace jx& 
6i>ae H3Be#eH ot TpaKHHCKHa aHTponoHHM 3cijimokcuc. 

Prnia ciano aaBa npHMep 3a npneMCTBeHOCT Ha MecTa, CBi>p3aHH cbc 
CBeiHeHOfleiiCTBHa h aoKaaH3HpaHH OKoao Lfapee eptx. B 3anaaHOTO My 
noAHoacne ce HaMnpa MecTHOCTTa LfhpKeuujemo, KbRQTO e otkpht 
paHHOxpncTHaHCKH KyaTOB KOMnaeKC. B nocoKaTa Ha ceBep ot CKnoHOBeTe 
Ha Lfapee ephx ce HaMnpa PnacKnaT MaHacTnp n CKanncTaTa MecTHOCT b 
aoaHHara Ha PnacKa peKa, KtaeTO e acHBaa cb. HBaH PnacKn. IIopa3HTeaeH e 
4>aKTbT, ae oSHiaaHiHeTO Ha nycTHHoacHTeaa He ce OTanaaBa ot TOBa Ha 



374 



3Mea. To ce CBeac/ja ^o Majiica npoxo^Ha nemepa, H3Bop h cicajiHa nnoma/iKa, 
K-b/ieTO cb. HBaH Phjickh nocpeman H3rpeBa Ha cjrbHneTO. 

flpeBHHTe pejiHrH03HH Tpa^nnnH Ha rinpHH, HneTO MeranHTHO 
CBeTHJiHme okojio IIonoBO e3epo e npHBJiHHano hokjiohhhu,h ot Mana A3na 
h BejiOMopneTO, npe3 HOBaTa epa HaisinpaT npofltJiaceHHe b fleiiHOCTTa Ha 
H3aBeHH xpncTHaHCKH nempoBe no CTpyMa (CaH/iaHCKH) h no MecTa 
(HnKonojiHC a# HecTpyM). B KOHreKCTa Ha npneMCTBeHOCTTa cfaBceM 
3aKOHOMepHO rorjieacfla TOBa, ne b mccthocth, KT>fleTO cnopefl jiereH^HTe ce 
HaMHpaT MapKOBH CKanH, 3ivieHOBH flymen h ajmta c neKOBHTa BO^a, /mec ce 
OTKpHBaT CRQffa ot MaHacTHpH hjih ce H3#HraT ntpiCBH (u,. Cb. reoprn B M. 
PyceH KaMtK icpan c. PycoKacTpo, MaHacrapne icpan c. Hnepa), a 
pejiHrH03HHaT >khbot BKJiiOHBa noKJiOHHHHecTBa, npaBeHe Ha KypSaHH, 
necTBaHe Ha xpaMOBH npa3HHu,H. 

3aKJiioHeHiie 

IIjiaHHHaTa KaTO peaneH reorpa(])CKH (JDaicr h o6pa3-TBopeHHe Ha 
MHTOJiornaTa e Hepa3flejiHa nacT ot npe^CTaBaTa 3a StJirapHre h 3a 
oSnTaBaHOTO ot Tax npocTpaHCTBO. HeocnopHM (J)aKT e, ne StJirapHre ca 
nnaHHHCKH Hapofl, ne Te npe3 Henna ch ax>jrbr HCTopnnecKn >khbot TpaiiHO 
ycanaT b nnaHHHCKH npenejin. Ot Ka3aHOTO npTyic, oSane, ce pa36npa, ne 
njiaHHHHTe, 3a kohto CTaHa nyvia b to3h nperjien Ha o6>khbjihoto ot 
StJirapHTe n TexHHTe npeflnn npocTpaHCTBO, He MoraT aa StnaT ^eneHH Ha 
peanHO cbmecTByBamH h H3MHCJieHH. MnrHHHaTa hjih CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa 
He e H3MHCJiHu,a. T» 6n Moraa na Stne h Ha npaicraica e Bcaica reorpa(J)CKa 
naaeHOCT c onpenejieH penecj), ocMHCJieHa KaTO npocTpaHCTBO c ocoSeHO 
KanecTBO. Ta3n ocoSchoct Ha peanHna reorpa(J)CKH oSeier ce OTKpHBa b 
Tonorpa^naTa n b TonoHHMHjrra, nonpoSHO oSacHeHH npe3 nonxonam mht. 
Bcaica ot noHMemio npencTaBeHHre b TOBa H3anenBaHe njiaHHHH OTroBapa 



375 



Ha npeflcrraBaTa "cBemeHa" h TOBa Seine npocTpaHHO apryMeHTHpaHO. 
BwipocbT e KaKBO e mjictoto Ha BcaKa ot Tax cnpaMO npe^CTaBaTa 3a cbjito 
npocTpaHCTBO, KaKBaTO cnaBa ch e H3BOK)Ban Kaiijiac? flann b naMeTra Ha 
HOBenecTBOTO HMa cnoMeH 3a e^HO e^HHCTBeHO Han-CBjrro hjih no-CBjrro 
mscto Ha 3eM»Ta, KoeTO e MOflejinpamo cnpaMO BcaKa Apyra reorpa(j)CKa 
Aa/ieHOCT, B"b3npoH3Be>KAama (JDyHKHHHre My? E jih TOBa mjicto CBemeHaTa 
njiaHHHa KaMjiac b TnSeT? Bi>3mo>kho jih e cnoMeHaBaHeTO Pl b CTaTHa Ha 
PaKOBCKH jx& e noflTHKHano BtoSpaaceHHeTO Ha TojioraHOB jx& ch3j\aj\Q 
o6pa3a Ha KaMjie-rpa/ia, npn nojioacemie, ne rojieMHjrr Hani BT,3poac/ieHCKH 
HapoflOBefl cnoMeHaBa KaMjiac e^HHCTBeHO bt>b Bpt3Ka c hjikoh o6pa3H h 
Hflen ot HH/iHHCKaTa MHTOJioraa. H^ejrra, ne CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa Kaiijiac e 
HeHTtp Ha oSnTaBaHO npocTpaHCTBO, HapeneHO ot Myji^anieB 'Tpa^ Ha 
BoroBeTe", e ot Kpaa Ha XX Beic, BtBe/ieHa b HayHHO oSptmeHHe b caMOTO 
Hanaro Ha XXI Beic. cDaKTbT, ne Ta3H \ijxqk, ^OKyMenrHpaHa h oSocHOBaHa 
npe3 npoyHBaHe Ha reorpa(J3CKHji oSeKT, chnnaj\a c o6pa3a Ha Kanjie-rpa/ia 
ot "Be^a CnoBeHa", 6h MorbJi jx& nopoflH hjikojiko Bi>npoca. IltpBHaT ot Tax 
e flanH MyrmameB no3HaBa to3h cSopHHK h HeroBHTe TeKCTOBe? IIpH 
AOKa3aHO noHTeHOTO My OTHOiueHHe kbm noji3BaHHTe ot Hero H3Bopn h 
noApoSHOTO onncaHHe Ha hbtji Ha coScTBeHaTa My mhcbji jxo H/iejrra 3a 
'Tpa/ja Ha SoroBeTe" OTroBopvr e OTpnnaTejieH. KoeTO npaBH ySeflnrejiHO 
^onycicaHeTO, ne "Be^a CnoBeHa" (kojito HaMa KaK jx& e noBJiHJiHa ot 
iijxqwiq Ha Myji^aiueB) npeHaca bt>b BpeMeTO 3HaHHe, BtnubTeHO b o6pa3a 
Ha rpa/i, Kt^eTO SoroBe h n,ape ce cpemaT h oSmyBaT. A CBBpeMeHHHaT 
HayneH noAxofl kt>m CBemeHaTa njiaHHHa KaMjiac c nocTHraaTHTe flOTyK 
pe3yjiTaTH e npe/niocTaBKa 3a npeocMHCJunie Ha OTHOiueHHeTO kbm "Be^a 
CjiOBeHa" nopa/jH bt,3mo>khhji Pl CTaryT Ha aBTeHTHneH H3Bop. 

HaMa KaK na nojiynnM OTroBop Ha B-bnpoca TnSeTCKHaT Kaitnac jih e 
onncaH BtB "Be^a CjiOBeHa". Kanne-rpa/ia e npecTOJiHHHa Ha "u,apa Ha 



376 



HaniHTe fleflOBe cnopefl hskoh neceHHH TeKCTOBe, ho toh e pa3nojioaceH Ha 
nojie-Ty". H Bee naK H3KyiueHHe #a ce oSBtpace to3h o6pa3 c OHOBa 
CBemeHO npocTpaHCTBO cbmecTByBa, ocoSeHO aKO ce TptrHe no jinmia Ha 
n^en 3a npapoflHHa h npecejiemia. H nofloSHH H/jen e^Ba jih MoraT jx& ce 
CMjrrar 3a HejiornnHn hjih jiniueHH ot nciopHHecKH ocHOBaHHa. 
B"b3MO>KHaTa Bp"b3Ka Meac/iy npocTpaHCTBOTO-o6pa3en (Kaiijiac) h hctobhtc 
Konna, Bi>3HHKnajiH b npeflejime Ha pa3JinHHn njiaHHHH (b Hamna cjiyian 
CTapa IIjiaHHHa, Pnna, IIhphh, Poflonme h jjp.) rorjieac/ia ySeflHiejma no 
npeflCTaBeHHTe apxeojiornnecKH n jinHrBHCTHHHH /lamin. HaniHTe CBeineHH, 
CBeTH, Kp-bCTOBH, napcKH njiaHHHn/ropn/B'bpxoBe noBTopaT KaTO ctcTaB n 
pa3nojioaceHne 3a/rbJi>KHTejiHHTe ejieMeHTH Ha CBeineHaTa njiaHHHa. ^okojiko 
"npnpoAHnaT KOfl" Ha CKajiHnre {J)opMH (nHpaMH/ni, mioinaflKH, crbJiSn, 
TpoHOBe) e BBnpoc Ha cjiana cjiynanHOCT? Han-BnenaTJiaBainoTO npo3peHne 
Ha MyimameB cjie/i orjie/ia Ha Kaimac e, ne "npnpoAHaTa 4)opMa" Ha T03H 
njiaHHHCKn MacHB, KaKTO h Ha 6jih3koto My oSKptaceHne, e Aejio Ha pa3yMHH 
CbinecTBa. Hmchho no noica3aTejia "ctTBopaBaHe h oSacnBaBaHe" Ha 
reorpa(J3CKH (J)opMH, (J)aKT, kbm kohto hh HacoiBaT MHoacecTBO StJirapcKH 
jiereH^H h npeflaHHa, OTKpnBaMe noTB-bpac/ieHHe 3a HanHnneTO Ha 
TnnojiornHHO cxo/hih oSeKTH (cBemeHa njiaHHHa/cBeTHJiHma^OMOBe Ha 
SoroBe) Btpxy TepHTopnaTa Ha StJirapHie. A ino ce oinaca j\o cbBna^amHTe 
onpefleneHHji (cenm, Kpcrnee, tjapcKu), Te icaro ne jih noTBtpayiaBaT MncfaJiTa 
Ha PaKOBCKH, ne "3eMJieonncaHneTo" ci>mo ce npeHaca, KaTO no Bcaica 
BepoaTHOCT npeHOCBT He e npon3BOJieH, a e CBtp3aH c Ha30BaBaHe Ha 
CbBna^amn hjih cxo/hih cbihhocth. 

IIoBOfl 3a pa3Mncfaji othocho HaKaKtB bh/i o6Bi>p3aHOCT Meac/iy 
Kaiijiac n Kanjie ^aBai - h cnoMeHaTHTe b jiereH^n, npe^aHna n necHH 
oSnTaTejin Ha Te3n "rpaflOBe". Bene Seme Ka3aHO, ne b rpa^a Ha HMa nape 
CJiH3aT 3MenoBe n kwh. 3a pa3JinKa ot TeKCTOBeTe Ha "Be^a CjiOBeHa", 



377 



icb/ieTO nocTOjmeH oSnTaTeji Ha Kanjie rpa/ja e x^apnm. na naiuume dedoee, 3a 
KoroTO 3HaeM e^HHCTBeHO TOBa, ne e npeSHBanan Ha HeSeTO KaTO mMemnun 
Ha Bora, jiereHflnre h npe/iaHHJi 3a MecTHOCTHTe, h3bccthh c HMeHaTa ceemu 
h tjapcKu, 6e3 H3KJiiOHeHHe ca acnnHina Ha 3MenoBe, caMOflHBH/caMOBHJiH 
hjih Ha KpanH MapKO. nocneflHHJiT e HaH-nonyjiapHHaT StJirapcKH o6pa3 Ha 
HcnojiHH. HHTepecHa no/ipoSHOCT e cnoMeHaBaHeTO Ha rpa/iHHa 
(caivtoflHBCKH rpa/iHHH, momhh ABop) h/hjih CTonaHCTBO (KynHH h xapMaH Ha 
KpanH MapKO no Shjioto Ha BacnjibOBCicaTa njiaHHHa). Ho rpa^HHH h 
fleiiHOCT Ha SoroBe, nojiySoroBe h xopa c ocoSeH CTaryr, Hocema SoraTCTBO, 
ce cnoMeHaBaT h no noBOfl Ha ThSctckhs Kanjiac. Cnopefl HH^HHCicaTa 
MHTOJiorna Ha Bptx Kanjiac ce HaMHpa rpa/iHHaTa Ha KySepa - 6or Ha 
SoraTCTBOTO. 3a Hea ce rpnacaT ctmecTBa, HapnnaHH MaKniH, "flpyrnre 
xopa", "HHCTHTe xopa", cnoivteHaBaHH ctnjo b MHTOJiorHHTe Ha BHeTHaMnn, 
KopeHu,H, ernnTaHH. 3a/i Ha3BaHHeTO "»khih, jiaKHiH, HaKcn" ce OTKpnBaT 
pa3JiHHHH o6pa3H, a HMeHHo: ^acy/iaceTa hjih npeicpacHH, chjihh MJia/pi 
xopa. Bpt3Ka Meac/iy Kanjiac h CT>3flaHHa ot po^a Ha mhthhhh Hy^OBHina, 
BenHKaHH, ocHOBonojio>KHHLi,H Ha napcicn ^HHacTHH ce OTKpHBa Ha 
jieKCHKanHO paBHHme b MHTOJiorHHTe Ha MHoacecTBO Hapo^H (KaMryc, 
Kaiijiy-HieH, KaHMHHinoy, KanaHH/pi). OTraac ot eBemyajiHa Bpi>3Ka 
Meac/iy Ha3BaHneTO Ha BenHKaHH, H3BeayiaHO ot KopeHa xaii (6e3 aconnanHH 
c Kanjiac oSane), Ttpcn CBeTJi03ap IIonoB b npo3BHineTO Khh Ha 
KySpaTOBHa 6paT IHaM6aT. BnponeM npaBOMepHOCTTa Ha no/ioSHO 
^onycicaHe ce noTBtpayiaBa h ot cnoivteHaTHTe y ct>ihhji aBTop (b KHHraTa My 
"BtnrapcKOTO HMe b SnSjieHCKH BpeMeHa") npHMepH He caMO Ha TeoHHMH 
(KySepa), eTHOHHMH (Kan-Kana) h aHTponoHHMH, ho h Ha thtjih KaTO 
KaHac, KaH, KaraH, eflH03HanHO h HeH3MeHHO ctOTHacaHH c 6i>JirapcKO 
npHCbCTBHe. 49) 



378 



06pa3"faT Ha Kaitne-rpa/ia, npn uajiaTa ch (pparMenrapHOCT b TeKCTa 
Ha "Be^a CnoBeHa" 3acjry>KaBa cneHHanHO BHHMaHHe, 3amoTO AaBa 
B-b3MO>KHOCT #a ce OTKpne StJirapcKaTa peaKu,Ha cnpaMO npoSjieMHTe Ha 

CBeTOCTTa B KOHTeKCTa Ha CBeTOBHaTa MHTOnOCTHHHa TpaflHLI,Ha H HCHHOTO 

(Ha CBeTOCTTa) npncbCTBHe b HCTopHnecicaTa npaKTHKa. 

EEJIE)KKH 

1. Eojibiuax coeemcKax 3HijUKJioneduM. T. 19, II 113,0,., M., 1953, c. 374. 
Cnopefl Mu(pbi napodoe Mupa, T. 2, M., 1980, c. 610, Kafijiaca e b XnMajiaHTe h 
no-TOHHO b K»KHaTa nacT Ha Th6ctckoto imaTO, npeaeraBeHO KaTO naer ot Ta3H 
njiaHHHa. 

2. BC3, t. 19, II H3fl. M., 1953, c. 374. 06pa3HOB, II. Anmu-Myjidamee. Om 
K020 e npou3JiR3-bn ycpuMCKunm ocpmajiMOJioz? C, 2005, c. 22. 

3. 06pa3iiOB, II. hht. cbh., c. 22, Ktaero aBToptT ce no30BaBa Ha Amnac 
Mupa,M., 1999 r. 

4. Mu(pbi napodoe Mupa. T.2, M., 1980, c. 610. Mhoix) HHTepecHa Bpt3Ka 
npaBH CBeTJi03ap IIonoB b KHHraTa ch "B'bJirapcKOTO HMe b 6h6jichckh BpeMeHa" h 
no-TOHHO b tji. 8 — "MoficeH - IIpopoK Ha Hexcma" no noBOfl, Ha xHnoTerHHHaTa 
Bpt3Ka Meacfly 6tJirapHTe h hjikoh ppeBHH Hapo^H (HaKraac/MaKcac), hhhto 
cthohhm ci>Bnafl,a c to3h Ha ctmecTBaTa, o6pa6oTBamH rpa^KHHTe Ha 6or Ky6epa, 
kohto ce HaMnpaT Ha Bptx Kafijiac. B>k. IIonoB, Cb. EtJirapcicoTO HMe b 6h6jichckh 
BpeMeHa, BapHa, 2005, c. 82-83: "YcTaHOBHXMe, ne ntpBaTa npegnojiaraeMa cpema 
Ha flpeBHHTe Gturapn c po/ja Ha Tapa h ABpaaM ce e cbCToajia b panoHa Ha 
CeBepHa MeconoTaMHa c HeHTtp XapaH, npe3 XVIII-XVII b. np. Xp. ToraBa ce 
CJiHBaT flBaTa MHrpaHHOHHH noTOKa Ha 3a6arHajiHTe ot Yp XanaeHCKH ABpaMOBH 
poflCTBeHHHH h HaxjiyiiHTe ot H3tok HauiecTBeHHHH - KOHHHTe apHH, Hanejio c 
xHRCOCHTe-fiaKcac. (...). CaMHTe xhkcoch (fiaKcac, fiaKiuac) OTicpHBaMe othobo b 
HHflHHCKa cpe^a, npeacraBeHH b HH^HHCicaTa MHTOJiorna KaTO icnac nojiy6oroBe. 
HcTopnaTa cohh, ne xHKCOCHTe He ca cnpenH m>Ta ch b CeBepHa MeconoTaMHa, a 
ca npofl'bJDKHJiH, CTHrHajiH ca 30 ErnneT h /jopn ca ro 3aBJiaaejiH h BJiacTBajiH Ha^, 



379 



Hero 6jih30 Beic. Eto 3am,o cracpHBaMe CJiejjH ot HHJTHHCKa KyjiTypa h TyK. (...)■ 3a 
HHTaTena HMa p,a e Tpya,HO j\a OTKpiie b to3h tckct HaTpynBanniTe ce napajiejiH b 
Ha3BaHHaTa Ha hhjthhckhtc rynTH h ernneTCKHTe kohth; Meatfly hhahhckoto Te6ec, 
OTnpamaiHO bh kbm ctcefleH Tn6eT h ernneTCKOTO TnBa; Meayry KapflaMa h 
Kap^aMOHOBHTe njiaHHHH b HHflHa h MecTHOCTTa KapflaMCT'xajiH b pafioHa Ha 
KonTOC h TnBa Kpafi Hhji. Ome no-oie6HHHH CTaBaT Te3H napajiejiH, HMaHKH 
npeflBHfl 3HaHeHHeTO Ha hmcto KapflaMa - "ctTBopeH ot Kan", ernneTCKaTa jiereHfla 
3a npoH3xofl,a Ha HOBeKa ot Kajrra Ha pexaTa Hhji h <})OHeTHHHaTa 6jih30Ct Ha 
KapflaMa c GnGjiencKHa poflOHaqajiHHK AflaM, ci>mo npoH3jrH3'bJi no EoaoiaTa bojih 
ot Kan (rjiHHa), KaKTO h c HeroBHa hhahhckh aHajior AflaMa. Bene cnoMeHaxMe 3a 
noMomHHHHTe Ha HHflHHCKHa 6or Ha 6oraTCTBOTO Ky6epa - SaKiuHTe, noaBHJiH ce b 
ernneTCKHTe jiereHflH c hmcto MaKmac (SaKcac), Hfl,eHTH<})HHHpaHH ot Hac KaTO 
xhkcoch. LU,e npn6aBHM, ne Te HMaT imipoKa nonynapHOCT Ha 3p6po)KejiaTejiHH, 
chjihh h B'bHiHHO npeKpacHH MJiaflH xopa, noTOMHH Ha caMHa BpaxMa hjih Ha 
HeroBHa chh nyjiaera, HapnqaHH "flpyrHTe xopa" hjih "hhcthtc xopa". Te na3aT 
rpaflimaTa Ha Ky6epa Ha Bptx KaSjiac b XHMajiaHTe, ho cjiaBaTa h hmcto hm ca 
flOCTHinajiH flajien no qy)KflHTe 3eMH h ocbch b HHflHHCKaTa MHTOJiorna, Te 
npncbCTBaT b ernneTCKaTa, ctmo bt>b BneTHaMCKaTa n b KopeiicKaTa MHTOJiorHn". 
CBerocjiaB IIonoB nHTnpa MHM, T.2, c. 682. 

5. Ctchh, P. TudemcKama ijueujiu3ai{UM, C, 2001, c.16, 33, 312. J\& ce 
o6i>pHe BHHMaHHe Ha pa3MHHaBaHeTO b Ha3BaHHaTa. HMaM npeflBHfl 
ropenocoieHOTO Ha3BaHHe 'TaHTpn". 

6. Myji^aiueB, E. B o6fimuRma na LUaMdana. C, 2004, c. 258, 332. y Hac 
eflHO ot Tpaji,HHHOHHHTe Ha3BaHHa 3a H3BopHe e "KaiiHaK", "KaHHane". To 
onpe/jejieHO HMa o6ma jieKCHKajiHa cteraBKa c Kafijiac. Ako Kafijiac e ctpHeTO Ha 
BO^aTa, to bchhkh H3TOHHHHH Ha BOfla, H3BHpaiHa ot 3eM>rra, 6h Tpa6Bajio 3a 
noji y ap'bp}KaT Bpi>3Ka c OHOBa Macro h Ha jieKCHKajiHO paBHHiue. 

7. Hjihcb, A. E-bJizapume u nonyocmpoe Xundycman, C, 2006, c. 52. Ha c. 
84, npefleraBaHKH hskoh tohohhmh ot Tn6eTCKaTa aBTOHOMHa o6jiacT b KnTafi, 
aBTopi>T nnrae: "Kafijiam (Hafi-CBemeHHaT pernoH Ha nojiyocTpoB XHHflycTaH) - 
o6ji. KapflaMecBapa, KapflaM, yfirapneH, IIlnnKH, npeBaji IIlnnKH JIa", a kbm 



380 



HJitocTpaTHBHiia MaTepnaji, kohto He e HOMepiipaH, e BioiiOHeHa CHHMKa Ha cicajieH 
MacHB, nofl kohto ce Here: "Bptx Kafijiara (MaH^apa, ot njiaHHHaTa KaSjiaca hjih 
CyMepy) b LUaHiruyHr, 3ana,a,eH Th6ct. To3h HHTaT 3aTpya,HaBa ome noBene 
o6Bi>p3BaHeTO Ha TonoHHMa KaSjiac (KaSjiaca, Kanjiaui) e,a,H03HaHHO c reorpa<J)CKa 
(})opMa, nop, KoeTO ce pa36npa nnaHHCKa Bepnra (xpe6eT), cicajieH MacHB (njiaHHHa, 
Bptx), KaKTO h Hafi-BHCOKaTa nacT Ha CKajiHHa MacHB. ^ontJiHHTejiHO oG'bpKBaHe 
BHacaT h Ha3BaHHSTa CyMepy h MaH^apa, 3a kohto aBToptT He e noconnji Ha koh 

e3HK Ca H KOH HapOfl, TH H3nOJI3Ba. 

8. Myji/jameB, E. 3namnume nnomi na Xapamu, C, 2004, c. 191.E,thh ot 
Bt3MO>KHHTe n'bTHma 30 to3h nnaHHHCKH xpe6eT ot Henaji 30 KHTaficKH Tn6eT, 
H3noji3BaH ot Myji^ameB h HeroBHa kojickthb, npeMHHaBa npe3 KHraficKOTO rpa^ne 
^>KaHrHy h cenijeTO HnanaM. IIo-cepH03HH H3nHraHHa hoch ntTa npe3 
XHMajiaficKHa xpe6eT, kohto noKJiOHHHHHre npeMimaBaT b pafioHa Ha Ba^pHHaT. 

9. MyjiaaineB, E. 3jiamHume urohu hci Xapamu, C, 2004, c. 192-193. 
CtmnaT, B odHmunma Ha HIaM6ajia...c. 243. 

10. HcTopHHTe h jiereH^HTe, BnenaTJieHHaTa Ha MOHacn h hokjiohhhhh, 
KaKTO h jiHHHHTe BnenaTJieHHa Ha aBTopa ot HaGmo/iaBaHaTa KyjiTypHa cpe^a (6poM 
h opneHTaiiHa Ha CTynHTe, npeflMeni 3a noioiOHeHHe, penHrH03HO noBe/jeHHe) 
yimtTHaBaT npefleraBaTa My 3a Kaimac KaTO npocTpaHCTBO c no3fl,eMHa h Ha,a,3eMHa 
nacT. TpynaT ce 3HaHHa 3a HaHMeHyBami o6ckth okojio CBemeHaTa imamiHa, 3a 
BxoflOBeTe KtM nofl,3eMHaTa Ha KaSnac. U,ejiTa Ha eKcneflHHHaTa e 3a 
H3eHTH(j)HiiHpa H3BecTHHTe Bene ot npeaHiHHH onncaHHa (y Pbopnx h ^p.) 
HaHMeHyBaHH o6ckth - MajxbK KaSjiac, CTaTyaTa Ha qeTamHfl hobck, CeKHpaTa Ha 
ctflGaTa, MacTOTO Ha raa^HHa rzboji. Ha to3h eTan ce rbpcn h noTB'bp>Kfl,eHHe 3a 
H3KycTBeHHa npoH3xofl Ha CBemeHaTa nnaHHHa - HeHTtp Ha Tpa^a Ha 6oroBeTe, 
npe3 (J)opMHpaHe Ha xHnoTe3H 3a TexHOJioniH, 3a,o,eHCTBaiHH (Jdhhh eHeprHH 
nocpe^CTBOM <j)opMaTa h hchhoto HHrepnpeTHpaHe KaTO npocTpaHCTBeHa MaHTpa. 
BtpBH ce h ki>m npeocMHCJiaHe Ha hjikoh nereupji b flyxa Ha ctBpeMeHHHre HayHHH 
nocTHaceHHH - HanpHMep TafiHCTBeHHaT KaMtK IIlaHTaMaHH, ^OHeceH Ha 3eMaTa ot 
KpHJiaTHH koh JlyHr-Ta. Myn/jameB e ckjiohch Ha bh/hi b Hero KaMeHeH <J)aHJi, kohto 
ei>,Tbp)Ka ocHOBHaTa nporpaMa 3a >KHBOTa Ha 3eM>rra. Ta e oebmecTBeHa noeTanHO 



381 



ot oGirraTejiHTe Ha rpajxa Ha EoroBere, noTB'bp>Kfl,eHHe Ha kocto MyujxameB 
OTKpHBa Ha t.h. Macro Ha raa^HHa jjaboji, kocto cnope/i Hero cbBna^a c Tpa^a Ha 
HorHTe. TyK HCTopHnecKa peajiHOCT h jiereH^a ce npenoicpHBaT bt>b (})HrypHTe Ha 8- 
Te BKaMeHeHH xopa. Cnopea jiereH^aTa bcckh ot Tax HMa OTHomeHHe kbm otjiomi>k 
ot KaMtKa Ha IIIaHTaMaHH, a cnopefl, MyjiJxaineB TOBa e o6pa3i>T Ha cbinecTBOTO, 
npH3BaHO 3a ocbmecTBH oceMTe eTana ot nporpaMaTa Ha >KHBOTa, 3aKOjrnpaHa b 
KaMeHHHa (JDaSji. Oco6eH HHTepec ot 3HaHHaTa, cb6npaHH npejjH eKcneiiHHHaTa, 
npefleraBJiaBa OHa3H TaxHa nacT, KoaTO ce oraaca 30 Bi>3MO>KHOCTHTe 3a o6myBaHe 
etc CBemeHOTO npocTpaHCTBO - onpe/jejieH ran noBe,a,eHHe (MtJinaHHe, hhcth 
noMHCJiH, H3pHHaHe Ha 3aiaiHHaHHa), KoeTO ce nocTHra npe3 caMOKOHTpoji h 
H3nHTaHHa, Ha kohto hobck jj,o6pobojiho ce nojiJiara. 

11. Myji^auieB, E. 3jiamHume ruiomi hci Xapamu, C, 2004, c.212. B>k. Cbinp 
197-257. 

12. Ctchh, P. Tu6emcKama ifueujiu3aifUM, C, 2001, c. 29-30: "Hmcto 
"Th6ct", Heo6acHeHO ome, e MO»ce 6h nnop, Ha CMecBaHe, nojiynnjio ce ot 
HajiaraHeTO Ha itokhhtc th6cthh h&p, TiopKO-MOHrojiCKOTO HaceneHHe ot 
ceBepoH3TOK. Hmcto, c kocto th6cthhtc Ha30BaBaT CBoaTa erpaHa Eojj, (b jTHenmo 
Bpeivie ce npoH3Haca KaTO llbo b HeHrpajiHHa Jixaciai JxnajieKT) e 6hjio MHoro ao6pe 
TpaHCKpnGnpaHO h 3ana3eHO ot tcxhhtc io>khh cbcejrn, hhjthhhhtc kohto Ka3BajiH 
ExoTa, ExayTa hjih Eayra. CMaTame ce, ne TOBa HMe ce e cpema.no y HrojieMeH h b 
nepnnjiyca Ha EpHTpeficKO Mope (rptHKO ctHHHeHHe ot I bck), kb/jcto ce 
cnoMeHaBa HapoffbT 6ayTaM h peKaTa EayTHCKOC, no noBOfl Ha e^Ha o6jiacT b 
HeHTpajma A3Ha. Ho npe3 Ta3H enoxa He 3HaeM hhiho 3a cbmecTByBaHero na 
TH6eTHHTC KnTaHHHTe, BtnpeKH ne ca MHoro Jio6pe ocBeaoMeHH 3a th6cthht6 ot 
VII b. HaTan>K, npe/jaBaT bmccto Boa - OaH (jrpeBHOTO EnyaH). /JajiH 3amoTO b 
Tn6eT ca 3aMecTBajiH necTO E03 c Eoh, hjih 3amoTO KHTaficKaTa jxyM& fan cnyyuena 
3a 03HanaBaHe Ha "BapBapH"?He ce 3Hae. Ho ot co,hh thGctckh nocnaHHK 
KHTaHHHTe 6tp30 Bt3npHejiH hmcto Toy-(J)aH, CMecBaiiKH ro c hmcto Ha eaHO 
TiopKO-MOHrojiCKO HacejieHHe - Toy-(j)a. HeroBaTa opnrHHajiHa (})opMa 6h Tpa6Bajio 
fla 6tja,e Hemo KaTO TynnaT. npe3 ctmaTa enoxa b tk>pkckhtc h conniHCKHTe 
TeKCTOBe ce roBopn 3a ejjHH Hapofl, TioniOT, kohto Moace j\& ce jiOKajiH3pa Ha 



382 



ceBepoH3TOK b ^HeraeH Th6ct. Hmchho Ta3H (j)opMa pa3npoerpaHaBaT 
MiocioJiMaHCKHTe aBTopH cjiea, IX BeK (Tio66eT, Tn66aT h flp.). Ot Tax Ta3H (})opMa 
npeMHHaBa cpep, eBponeMcKHTe m>TeniecTBeHHnn ot CpejTHOBeKOBneTO (ILiaHO p,e 
KapnHHH, Py6pyK, MapKO IIojio, OpaHnecico aena IleHHa)". 

13. MynjiaineB, E. B odfimuxma na IIIaM6ajia...c. 52: "Cjiefl KaTO 
H3MHHaxMe 6 KHJiOMerpa, cnpaxMe Ha MacTO, OTKtJieTO CBemeHHaT Kanjiac 
H3rae>Kfl,aiue Han-BejiHiecTBeH. B cpaBHeHHe c Hero okojihhtc xi>jiMOBe 6axa 
HeB3paHHH h He3HaHHTejiHH. Ton npHJiniaine Ha rpaHjrno3Ha h HeoGnnanHa 
CT'bnajiOBHflHa nnpaMH^a. He oeraBame h Hafi-MajiKOTO ctMHeHHe, ne 
nnpaMHaajiHaTa KOHCTpyKHHa c BncoiHHa 6666 Merpa, e ci>3Ji,aji,eHa ot noBenncn 
pi>ne hjih... BjiH3KHTe flo Hea njiaHHHCKH xpe6eTH c oGnnaHHH BtpxoBe h KJincypn 
caKam noflnepTaBaxa H3KycTBeHHa n npoH3xofl,". 

14. MyjiJxameB, E. B odnmuxma Ha HIaM6ajia...c. 173. 

15. Myji^aiueB, E. B odnmuHma Ha HIaM6ajia...c. 101. B cbinnTe khh™ no 
TBtp^eHHe Ha MOHacHre, kohto ca rn nann, ce OTicpHBaT onncaHHa Ha IIIaM6ajia h 

Ha "U,apCTBOTO Ha MI>pTBHTe". 

16. BepicoBHH, C. Beda Cjioeenax. Odpndmi necrni om R3unecKo epeMH, 
yna3enu co ycmno npedamie npu MciKedoHO-PodoncKiime EtJizapo-IToMaiju. KHHra 
flpyra. C. ITeTep6ypr, 1881, c. 245. 

17. IlaK TaM, c. 225. B>k. ctino C- 215 (JlnneH p,m MacHH p,en, neceH 3, 
cthx 75-80): "OopKHa ch $> Eaia rpajxa, O Bena rpa,a,a 4>a(Jj Kajinna"). 

18. IlaK TaM, c. 232-233 (b pa3flena "3a MacHH %m" (ot jxpyrno neBeH), 
neceH 2, 230-233). 

19. noBene no TeMaTa 3a yp6aHH3annaTa no npnMepn ot "Be^a CjiOBeHa" 
bh>k y CnMeoHOBa, r. "ritpBa rpajxa" - a6cojnoTHOTO hjih nopeflHOTO Hanajio. (IIo 
TeiccTOBe ot tom ntpBH Ha "Be/i,a CjiOBeHa")- - B: ETHOJiorna Ha npocTpaHCTBOTO. 
H.2, C, 2008, 21-35. CnMeoHOBa, E. EpajrtT b KonreiccTa Ha MHTonoeTHHHaTa 
yp6aHH3anna - onejiauo HacneflCTBO hjih ntpBonoaBa (IIo TeiccTOBe ot tom ntpBH 
Ha "Be/ia CjiOBeHa"), en. MnHajio, 1, 2008, 78-94. CnMeoHOBa, E. UapaT Ha Hamme 
nenom. - B: ITbTeKHTe Ha MnctJiTa, C, 2008, 249-287. CnMeoHOBa, E. Cjiobcchh 
otjiomkh ot "Bejxa CjiOBeHa", en. MnHajio, 1, 2010, 52-74. 



383 



20. PaKOBCKH, T.C. CypBaKH hjih Cyp-CiiBa 6or. - B: CwuHemix.T .4, C, 
1988, 363-364. 

21. PaKOBCKH, T.C. BenoKKH.- B: CwiiHemix. T.4, ...c. 591. Cnopefl Ta3H 
Gejieaoca Kafijiaca e b XHMajiHeTe, a Te - b XHH^HCTaH, a JlHHraMa e He ffbpBO Ha 

>KHBOTa, a (J)ajIHHeCKH chmboji. 

22. Hjihcb, A. E-bJizapume u nonyocmpoe Xundycman, C, 2006, c.62, 82. 
CHHMKaTa e b npnjioaceHHe c HeHOMepnpaHH CTpaHHHH. 

23. CnnpHflOHOB, T. Ceeujenama njiamma u entHimecKama mepumopun, C, 
1998. 

24. Myji^aiueB, E. B odrnnumna Ha LUaMdana, C, 2004, c. 258, 332. 
MapKOB, B. Cnedume Ha Eoza, EjiaroeBrpajj,, 2002, c. 58. EmjUKjionedux E-bJizapun. 
T.3, C, 1982, c. 276. Ha3BaHHero Ha CKajiHHa MaHacTHp e B3ero ot <j)OHOH3JiO)K6a 
Ha CBemeHH 6tJirapcKH o6ckth, noKa3aHa npe3 2008 r. b rpa,a,HHKaTa npep, CY. 
HBaHOB, E.H. TIpa6-bRzapcKURm e3UK e eeponeucKume e3uifu, Byprac, 2002, c. 67. B 
onHT 3a OTKpiiBaHe Ha 6T>JirapcKa eTHMOJiorna Ha opoHHMa Kafijiac ce oGptmaM kbm 
roBopemaTa a36yKa Ha noconeHHa aBTop. HaeaTa ce CBOK^a 30 TtpceHe Ha cmhckji 
BtB BceKH 3ByK Ha 6i>JirapcKHa e3HK: Kt-Afl- JIi>-IIIi>= (Kt-)KeHCKO, n>HKa, 
nopa>KJxa, yrpo6a, kkjih, 30; Ah- He6e, Hafi-BHcra, Bpeivie; Jit- rptfl, MafiKa, H3Bop, 
pofl, 3i.pHO, ceMKa, fltntr, bhcok, nnaHHHa; LLh>- ptKa, .zyiaH, hhcjioto 5), ot kocto 
H3JiH3a, ne Kafijiaiu HMa OTHoraeHHe kbm BJiacrTa, yHacTHero Ha Hemo, 03HaneHO c 5 
(nerre ejieMeHra), kbm njiaHHHaTa KaTO bhcoko Macro, CBi>p3aHO c He6ero, ho h etc 
3apa>Kfl,aHeTO h OTraeayiaHeTO Ha >KHBOTa - Hemo KaTO yTpo6a, b kojito kbjihh 
3t>photo, po^a, OTK'bfleTO 3anoHBa jj,a Tene BpeMeTo). B>k ct>iho c. 18 Kt-JIt ()KeHa, 
MafiKa - Kana, KajiHHa, KajieKO, noKOJieHne, rui); c. 52 Kt Ah Bt (BpeMe, 
BpeivieHHO, npoMeHaM - xaBa, Kaa ce, Ka6a (mck); c. 53. Kt-Aft-JIt-Tt (nopaayja 
roflHHa, 3anoHBa rojJHHa, HOBa rojTHHa-Kojie,a,a); c. 67 K'b-Afl-H'b-K'b (nopaayja- 
BHcra/BpeMe- ycTa/oTBop/fl,aBa - >KeHCKo/n>HKa/nopa)K/],a/ yTpo6a/ j\o). 

25. Hjihcb, An. Hht. cbh., c. 62. 

26. Mhkob, B. IJpou3xod u 3HaueHue Ha UMenama na nauiume zpadoee, 
cejia, peKa, njianuHU u Mecma. C, 1943, c. 165, 166,192. PaKOBCKH, T.C. 
IIoKa3ajieH...-B: CtHUHeHUM. T.4, C, 1988, c. 20-21. Kupwio-MemodueecKa 



384 



eHu,uKJionedusi. T.l, C, 1985, 137-143;T. 2, C, 1995, c. 848-850. flHHOBa, B. 
CocpuucKama Mana Ceema zopa, C, 2007. 

27. Mhkob, B. U,ht. c-bH., c. 241. 

28. MecTHOcrra "Kp-beroBa ropa" hjih "KptCTOB Bptx" ce HaMHpa b 
Cpe/jHHTe Poflonn, Hcgajien ot EanKOBCKHa MaHaerjip. Ta e nacr ot 3eMJiHmeTO Ha 
BanKOBCKHa MaHacTHp, ocHOBaH npe3 1083 r., h e H3BecTHa om,e c Ha3BaHHeTO 
"EpajTHme". ITo hmcto Ha 6tJirapcKa cpejjHOBeKOBHa KpenocT p,o flHec iiajiaTa 
MecTHOCT ot Kpi>CTOBa ropa flo c. EejiHiia e H3BecrHa h c hmcto Kopmhcoih, KoeTO 
ce npeHaca h Btpxy pe3epBaTa, ctmecTByBaji tjtc npe3 rojjHHHTe Ha coHHajiH3Ma. 
HMeTO "Kp-bCTOBa ropa" hjih "KptCTOB Bpi>x" ce H3Be>K]i,a ot jiereH/jaTa, ne b 
Cbrpa^eHHa Tyic MaHacTHp "Cb. Tpofiua", pa3pymeH no-KtCHO ot TypHHTe, ce 
na3ena nacrHHa ot Kp-bera, Ha kohto e 6hji pa3nHaT Hncyc XpncTOC. 
IIpHTeraTejiHOCTTa Ha MecTHOCTTa KaTO cbhto macto ce ctOTHaca c Tpa^HHCKOTO 
npncbCTBHe ot npe^xpHCTHaHCKO BpeMe, KaKTO h ot BpeMero Ha paHHOTO 

XpHCTHSHCTBO flO HaHIH JTHH. Oco6eHO Ce aKTHBH3Hpa nOKJIOHHHHCCKOTO JTBHtfCCHHe 

cneji 1989 r. CnpaBKa 3a HCTopnaTa Ha KyjiTOBHa Henrbp: 
http://www.rozhen.com/bg/landmark/gora.php 

29. Eto cnncbK Ha oGeKTHTe, o6xoj],eHH ot B. MaicpoB h onncaHH no jihhhh 
BnenaTJieHHa: m. Momckh KaMi>K Kpafi c. EojiaMa )Kejia3Ha, TpoaHCKO - CKanaTa ot 
ot pnjra, kohto ce cnycKa ot BacnjibOBCKaTa nnaHHHa; m. Hnepa Kpafi c. JlecH/rpaH, 
TpoaHCKo; CapHHa nemepa Kpafi rp. YrbpiKH, JIoBeniKo; nemepa Kpafi c. 
CKpe6aTHO, Eoue flejineBCKo; nemepaTa "MarypaTa" b EejiorpajrqHiHKo; nemepaTa 
"/JparaHHOBHiia" Kpafi c. Ejio)KeHe, TeTeBeHCKo; m. "PyceH KaMi>K" Kpafi c. 
PycoKacTpo; H3Bop"bT "EjieHHHa jrynKa" Kpafi c. Eajia BOJ0,a, BypracKo; 3MefioBa 
CKajia b rinpHH; Kpajin MapKOBa CKana no;i IJapeB Bpi>x b Pnjia Kpafi c. EncTpHiia, 
BjiaroeBrpa^CKo; UapeBH nopTH b PoflonnTe; Kpajin MapKOBa CKajia Kpafi c. Eojich, 
roiteaenneBCKo; KaajinficKH CKajiH Kpafi c. KoBaneBHiia, Toite /JejiieBCKo; m. 
PynnTe b noflHO^KneTO Ha Ko^cyx njiaHHHa; MapKOBa /rynKa Kpafi c. Kyjia3JiHfi, 
KapHoGaTCKO. 

30. MapKOB, B. Cnedume Ha Eoza, BjiaroeBrpajo,, 2002. LiHTaTHTe ca ot 
110- 115 c. 



385 



31. MapKOB, B. U,ht. cbh., c. 125. B>k. ct>ihp c. 117. 

32. MapKOB, B. U,ht. ct>h., c. 124. 

33. MapKOB, B. I t ,ht.ci>h., c. 59. 

34. MapKOB, B. U,ht. cbh., c. 58. B>k. ctmo c. 60:"CKajiHTe KpaM H3BopHTe 
Ha p. BHCTpniia, no 3ana,a,HHa ckjioh Ha U,apeB Bp'bx, ca oceaHH b MHO>KecTBO ome 
nofl,o6HH >KepTBeHHHH, e^HH ot kohto HaGmoaaBa h HaninaT eKHn npn 
nocemeHHeTO Ha MpKOBa CKana. Te Cbmo ce cbctoat ot H3KycTBeHO o(})opMeHH hjih 
300<j)opMeHH B3Jii>6HaTHHH b CKajiaTa c pa3JiHHHH <J)opMH, HaM-qecTO Kptraa". 

35. MapKOB, B. LJht.ct>h., c. 70. B>k. ei>mp c. 71. 

36. MapKOB, B. U,ht. cbh., c. 73-74. B>k. TaM napajiena Meayry aieMeHTHTe 
Ha m. MapKOBa CKajia noa IJ,apeB Bp^x b Pnjia, MapKOB KaMtK npn IIInpoK aon, 
CaMOKOBCKO, KpajiH MapKOBa CKana KpaM c. ^OJieH, Tone /Jcjihcbcko. 3a o6eKTH, 
CBtp3aHH c OTBJiHHaHero Ha MOMa ot 3Mefi, bh>k c. 7-9, 77 h pp. 

37. MapKOB, B., U,ht. cbh., c. 69. B>k. ctmo c. 46, 125 h pp. 

38. MapKOB, B. U,ht. cbh., c. 48-49. 

39. MapKOB, B. U,ht. cbh., c. 50. 

40. MapKOB, B. LI,ht. ct>h., c. 25. 

41. MapKOB, B. U,ht. ci>h., c. 26. BtB Bpt3Ka c KaM6aHOBHfl,HHa o6eM Ha 
HaKOH nemepn h taxhoto OTpa>KeHHe B'bpxy CKajiHHTe rpo6HHHH b Hstohhhtc 
PogonH bh>k ctmo c. 125. 

42. MapKOB, B. U,ht. ct>h., c. 111. B>k. cbiho c. 71. 

43. MapKOB, B. U,ht. ct>h., c. 123. 

44. MapKOB, B. LJht.ct>h., c. 49. 

45. MapKOB B. LJht.cih., c. 29-30, 36, 42,43, 48, 60, 61, 124. 

46. Mu(pbi napodoe Mupa. T. 2, M., 1982, c. 682. 

47. Mu(pu napodoe Mupa. T.l, M., 1980, 607-611, 633 (KafiaHHAH). B 
HananoTO Ha aturaTa nopepau& ot rnraHTH CBeTJi03ap IIonoB, KaTO ce no30BaBa Ha 
"PenHHK Ha anoKpH<j)HTe", noeraBfl Ap&M. Hmcto Ha HeroBHa chh KaHH, noTOMtK 
Ha rnraHT, ohcbh,tho ce H3BOKfl,a ot neKceMaTa Kan, kosto hbk e npocjie/niMa b 
Ha3BaHHaTa Ha MHO>KecTBO mhthhhh cbmecTBa: KaHiH-6a/pKaK (aeMOH b 
MHTOJiornaTa Ha Ka3axn h Typun), KaSryc (b MHTOJiornaTa Ha kcjith, noKpoBHTen 



386 



Ha ropcKHTe >khbothh), Kafi Ky6a,a, (ocHOBaTen Ha JiHHacTHaTa Ha KefiaHHflHTe b 
npaHCKaTa MHTOJiorna), Kafi KaByc (b npaHCKaTa Mnranorna BTopn Hap ot 
flHHacTHaTa Ha KefiaHnjrnTe, 6oro6opeH), Kafijiy-meH (6o>KecTBO b KHTaficKaTa 
MHTOJiorna, icoeTO pa3HHCTBa ntTa Ha noKofiHHHHTe), KafiMHHiuoy (b 
ApeBHOKHTaficKaTa MHTOJiorna orpoMeH 3Bap c /jeBeT hobcihkh Jinua, koSto ctoh Ha 
njiaHHHaTa KyHJiyH h na3H Ji,eBeT nopTH), Kafi Xycpoy (Tpe™ Hap ot flHHacraaTa 
Ha KeHaHH/nrre b npaHCKaTa MHTOJiorna). 

48. IIonoB, C. Ei>jiaapcKomo UMe e 6u6neucKu epeMena, BapHa, 2005, c. 
298: Kaii b Ha3BaHHeTO Ha Hapoji, (Kan-Kana/ xan-xana, T.e. xanxna), BnncaH h KaTO 
GarjiHKac (xopaTa ot BAJir/BAJIKX), 3a kohto ce H3ica3Ba o6ocHOBaHOTO MHeHne, 
ne ca TopaxH, kohto hbk ca H/jeHTHHHH c 6tJirapHTe. 

49. IIonoB, C. Ei>jizapcKomo ime e 6u6neucKu epeMena, BapHa, 2005, c.223: 
"3a BejiHKaHH h rnraHTH roBopaT noHTH bchhkh MHTOJiorHH. B pe/niua cjiynan 
caMHTe HMeHa Ha repoHTe OTpa3aBaT tbkmo TOBa hm KanecTBO - KaTO 6n6jiHeficKHa 
TojinaT, hhcto HMe 03HanaBa "rnraHT". B npe/jaHHeTO 3a ntpBHa nepcnficKH Hap 
KafiyviapaT, KopeHtT Kafi Ha hmcto My ctino 03HanaBa "BejiHKaH". Ot to3h KopeH 
HflBa h hmcto Ha KafiaH (bcjihk). J\& He 3a6paBaMe h "cjiaBaHCKHa" Knfi - 
HfleHTHtjjHiiHpaH c LUaM6aT, 6paTa Ha Ky6paT". 3a THryjiaiypaTa, HefiHOTO 
jieKCHKajiHO cxoji,ctbo h eBeHTyajraa CMHCJiOBa Bpi>3Ka c KaHH (chh Ha AflaM, 
npe^CTaBeH KaTO BejiHKaH, h ci>3Ji,aTeji Ha ni>pBHa cnoMeHaT b 6n6jiHaTa rpaji,) bh)k 
naKTaM, c. 333-338. 



M Prof. Dr. Gatya Simeonova, DA 
Institute of Ethnology & Folklore Studies with Museum of Ethnography, 

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 

6 A, Moskovska Str., 1000 Sofia, BULGARIA 

E-Mail: gali 46@abv.bg 



387 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal For Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume 1, Number 3, 2010 

Literary Section 



CTHXOTBOPEHIM 



i) 



BajieHTHH KAHEB 



Abstract. Four poems by Valentin Kachev are presented. These 
rhymes are inspired from Kachev 's memories from his native town of 
Belogradchik. 

Keywords: Belogradchik, Kachev, poetry 



PofleHHTe cnoBa ot MticaTa HOBemica, 

ca KaTO BtraeHH b KOBaniKH Mex, 

kohto BaaT ot acejia30TO ropemo, 

no^KOBHTe Ha BpaHHa acpeSeii. 

j\& cnpeM b noKJiOH npe# Te3H jxywui, 

kohto HaKora hh cpemaT b KptCTontT, 

npocTpenBaT hh b HenaTa 6e3 KypinyMH, 

ho BHHarn noKa3BaT Bepmui hh hkt! 



388 



}KHBEJI B JXbJlTyT, J^bJlTyT CTHX.. 

H naraM caM. 

BpaTaTa He 3annpaM, 

ne HaMaM a3 KaKBO jx& ce icpa/ie 

h b MHCJiHTe ch cfaBecTTa npnSnpaM - 

noTpHBaM yMopeHHTe H03e. 

Ot anHHOcrra He ce CTpaxyBaM 

h 3aBHCT a3 He 3aca#Hx, 

h b ropflOCTTa He ce npecTpyBaM - 

acHBea b jxbJYhT, jxbJYhT cthx... 

Ha Bjrrbpa He My OTEptmaM - 

BtpBJI, H 3Haa n&KhJXQ, 

noHjncora ce BptmaM b kbihh, 

TaM, npn poahoto Kane. 

H Ttpca BtB CKajiHTe nyBCTBa, 

roHa ra b 6e3AtHHOTO He6e, 

a npHjrrejiHTe ce OTBptmaT ot 

HeCtTBOpeHOTO MH SnTHe... 

Ho a3 cnoKoeH naic nperjrbmaM — 

h rae/iaM ra, MacTHTH h ^oSpn, 

a KtmHTe hm hbjihh c BemH, BemH... 

h c Tax TtpKanaT ce macTJiHBH /hth. 

A a3 iit>k b yTpoTO 3acnHBaM 

h CTaHax KpanaT Ha HomTa. 

He, He ch OTHBaM, 

a MB/ipocT yna ot CBeTa! 



3) 



389 



KOrATO BEHEPTA OlTtPHE 

3ara/i'bHHHa MJieneH iit>t 

h b CHM(J)OHHa npeBtpHe 

CKajiHaTa Jieremia Ha CBeTa, 

a Ha/i SamHHaTa CTpaxa 
Qjiua 3Be3Aa othobo noneTH, 

ne a onaKBa THiiiHHaTa, 
#a OTnpnmH HaniHTe mchth. 

E^Ha nojiHHa ntJiHa c nyBCTBa, 

a b flOJiHHa niyMH BO^a, 

nyHaTa caicaHi a nperptma 

CTaeHaTa b cbh ropa. 

H caKani necHHTe ca ckphth, 
HaMa ro OpcJDeeBHa raac, 

He HH OTKpHBaT H OpjIHTe 

KpaM CMtJinaHHa OBpar. 

A M05Ke 6h Ha/i Ta3H B»jia, 

oSrbpHana cbpijeTO THHiHHa 

me flOH/ie jiacroBHHa Sana, 

ORtnaHa b yTpHHHa poca? 

A naji CKaiiHTe naic me ctMHe, 

H npHKa3HH3 HOIHeH CB3T 

me ch OTH/ie, 3a j\a BtpHe 
o6pa3a Ha Senna mh rpa#! 



4) 



390 



C BPEMETO, HHKAK CH THXO, 5) 

3acnHBa nopeflHHa jn>H. 
JlyHaTa e naic Ha otkphto, 
3ar"bp6HJia 3Be3flHHa Atac/i- 

OTKpHBa hh BaTbp-bT b Hyaena nocTena, 

3a6paBeHH cbjish ot nnaxa jhoSob 

h HaKaKBa Hepa3ra/iaHa ^aHTejia 

nOKpHBa OHHTe h hoiuhhs cnor. . . 

A roncb/ie b 3opa ynoeHa 

hh naica Ha/ieac/iaTa, cBHJia Kpnne, 

AOKOCBa hh CTpyHa ot K-b/iejia, 

cjncam 6a6a man mh nneTe. . . 

A Moace 6h HaicaK e CTpaHHO, 
ne H^Ba Ha tocth h to3h KynneT, 

KoraTO Ha/i oSjiaica TaiiHO 
e/iHH napoAeeu, hh cnjiHTa BeHeu,. 



EEJIE)KKH 

1 . IIpeflCTaBeHHTe Tyic craxoTBopeHHa HacKopo 6axa ny6jiHicyBaHH 
b jiHTepaTypHOTO npHJioacefflie "KoHTyp" Ha b. "Cjiobo nmoc", 
nocBeTeHO Ha p,en% Ha noe3H>rra - 1 oktombph. 

2. ToBa KpaTKO CTHxoTBopeHHe e HanncaHO npe3 1984 r. b MocKBa. 

3. CTHxoTBopeHHeTO (1989 r., MocKBa), 3ae,a,HO c npeaxo,a,HOTO My, 
ca ny6jiHKyBaHH b noeraHHaTa KHHra "JleneCTKH CBeTa" (1999 
r.); pycKHaT npeBOfl e Ha Oner IUccthhckh. 



391 



4. 



5. 



CrnxoTBopeHHeTO e HanHcaHO b Co(pHa npe3 ji»toto Ha 

2010 r. 

CTHxoTBopeHHeTO e HanncaHO npe3 jiaTOTO Ha 2010 r. b 

BejiorpaflHHK. 



El Mr. Valentin Kachev, MA 

Union of Bulgarian Writers 

10, Kosta Lulchev Str., ent. B, apt. 32 

1113 Sofia, BULGARIA 

E-Mail: vkachev@abv.bg 




392 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal for Local History , Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume 1, Number 3, 2010 



Research Note 



flBE MHCTEPH03HH OOTOrPAOHH OT 
BEJIOrPAflHHK 



B. B. TOUIEB 



Abstract. Among the photographs of Belogradchik, published in 
books and journals from the 19 l and early 20 l centuries, there are two that 
raise eyebrows today with their view. One of them shows Belogradchik 
fortress in the form in which it probably never existed. In the other 
photograph the Belogradchik fortress, enlarged in 1837, cannot be recognized. 
However, such snapshot before this year could not be taken because in those 
years the photography had not been developed yet. 

Keywords: Belogradchik, photography, mystery 



HbpeaTa MHCTepH03Ha (|M)Torpa(|)iiH 

IIpe3 1907 r. MnHHCTepcTBO Ha TbproBHjrra h 3eMeflejiHeTO H3#aBa b 
CTpaHCTBO jiyKC03Ha KHnra c no/ipoSHH cbq^quks 3a BtJirapna. Ahtjihhckoto 
H3AaHne Ha Ta3H KHnra ot 450 CTpaHHu,H e 03arjiaBeHO "Bulgaria of Today" 
(1907) h e noBepeHO Ha Haxell, Watson & Viney Ld. - 4>HpMa, ko»to 
ocnrypaBa nenaTa h noAB'fap3HaTa Ha KHnraTa. 



393 



EXHIBITION-EARZSI 
C0VRT-Z?Nb°N°19G7. 




KHHraTa e b /use nacTH. ritpBaTa nacT #aBa irbJiHH CBe/ieHHa 3a 
KHaacecTBO BturapHa h HeroBOTO HaceneHHe: reorpa(J)CKH ocoSchocth, 
xH/iporpa4)Ha, KJiHMaT, (Jmopa h 4>ayHa, HCTopna Ha StJirapirre, 



394 



nojiHTHHecKOTO h a^MHHHCTpaTHBHO ycTpoHCTBO Ha ^bpacaBaTa, 
o6pa30BaTejiHHTe HHCTHryuHH, StJirapcKaTa HtpiCBa h jjpyrwiQ pejinraH Ha 
TepHTopnaTa Ha CTpaHaTa. BTopaTa nacT h3hjijio e nocBeTeHa Ha 
HKOHOMHnecKHTe ycnoBHa b CTpaHaTa: ropcKOTO CTonaHCTBO, 3eMeAeJiHeTO, 
KapnepHTe, mhhhtc h TonjiHTe MHHepanHH H3Bopn, H3KycTBaTa h 3aHa»THTe, 
ntTHHiaTa h cpe^CTBaTa 3a KOMyHHKau,Ha, eKcnopTHaTa h HMnopTHaTa 
BtHHiHa h MopcKa TbproBHa, SaHKOBOTO #ejio - bchhko TOBa e onncaHO c 
roneMH no/ipoSHOCTH, kocto ^aBa acHa HH^HKauHJi 3a CTonaHCKHa HanpefltK 
Ha BtJirapna, nocTHinaT b KpaTbK nepnofl ot BpeMe cnefl OcBoSoayieHHeTO 
Ha 6"bJirapHTe ot TypcKO nro. OcoSeHa hchhoct Ha Ta3H eHHHKJioneflHHHa 
KHHra ca HeiiHHTe 38 HJiiocTpaHHH, bchhkh c BaaceH hctophhcckh 3apa/i 3a 
AHeuiHHa H3CJieflOBaTeji. HancTHHa e BtJiHyBamo, ne cnHCbicbT Ha 
HJHOCTpaii,HHTe, oneBH/iHO no/iSpaHH jx& npeflCTaBjrr BH3yanHO no HaM- 
BnenaTJiJiBam HanHH BtJirapna Ha CTonaHCKna h KyjiTypeH cjiht Ha EBpona, 
3anoHBa c "Bejiorpa^HHiuKHTe CKajin". 

ToBa, oSane, He e ntpBaTa ny6jiHKau,Ha Ha Ta3H CHHMKa. B 1891 r. 
Ta3H HJnocTpai],Ha, nofl hmcto "Bejiorpa^HHHiKaTa TBtp/nrHa", ce noaBaBa b 
oSninpHOTO reorpa(J)CKO roaneflBaHe Ha KoHCTaHTHH HpeneK "KroiacecTBO 
B-bJirapna" (Jirecek, 1891). 

E^Ba jih HaKora Sejiorpa^HHuiKaTa KpenocT e H3rjieacfla.ua xaKa, KaKTO 
e noKa3aHa Ha flOJiHaTa CHHMKa. OStpHeTe BHHMaHHe Ha KaivteHHHTe 3H#OBe 
Ha Btpxa Ha Ta3H HenpHCTbnHa HHTa^ejia c Sohhhhh, kohto He npeflnojiaraT 
H3noji3BaHe Ha oraecTpejiHO optacne. HaMa ro pa3HiHpeHHeTO Ha KpenocTTa 
ot TpH/ieceTTe toahhh Ha XIX BeK. BMecTO TOBa e^Ha CTpaHHa ^ByeTaacHa 
KT>ma, c hjhcojiko npo3opeu,a Ha ropHna eTaac, 3aTBapa Bxo^a kt,m KpenocTTa. 



395 




KaKBO e TOBa - CHHMKa b HaTypa (e#Ba jih) hjih CHHMKa Ha KapTHHa, 
pncyBaHa ot xy/ioacHHK, kohto e pncyBan no cnoMemi?! TaKaBa KapTHHa, 
oSane, He e H3Becma. Eto e^Ha MHCTepna, kojito HaBapHO e CbfleHO ,zja 
ocTaHe Hepa3ra/iaHa. 

BnponeM HHTHpaHHre ffse KHnrn He ca e^HHCTBeHHTe, b kohto ce 
noaBjma Ta3H CHHMKa. "Eejiorpa/iHHHiKHTe cKann" MoraT #a ce bh/ijit h b 
roneMHa cnpaBOHHHK c pa3nHcaHHa Ha StJirapcKHre acejie3HHu,H, 
npeflHa3HaneH 3a cTpaHaTa h EBpona (KannieB & MnxanjiOB, 1917). B e^Ha 
no-KBCHa KOJieKu,Ha Ha rorjieflH ot EtJirapna Ta3H CHHMKa ce noaBaBa c 
HBeTHaTa ch Bepcna. OcoSeHa acHa e CHHMKaTa ot anSyivta "Beautiful 
Bulgaria" (1920). HaflnnctT no# Ta3H CHHMKa e Ha pycKn: 
"Eejiorpa/iHHKCKm ctojiobmji ropti" h e noconeHO HMeTO Ha 4)OTorpa(|)a: J\. 
KapacToaHOB b Co(J)Ha. 



396 




BTopaTa MHCTepH03Ha <poTorpa<piiH 




397 



B KHraTa Ha HpeneK (Jirecek, 1891) HMa h BTopa 4)OTorpa(|)H» Ha 
Bejiorpa/iHHK ("Eejiorpa^HHic ot ior"). Pa3rjieflaiiTe ropHaTa CHHMKa, kojito 
noKa3Ba Henrbpa Ha rpa/ja - hhto e^Ha ot BHac^amHTe ce roneMH crpa/ni 
AHec He cfamecTByBa. flann crpa/jaTa b ,zjt>hoto He e BoiiBOfleHHa KOHaK, 
H3ropaji no BpeMe Ha CptScKO-StJirapcicaTa BOHHa ot 1885 r.? ,H,ajiH 
^ByeTaacHaTa Sana crpa/ja b jijibo He e Hobhji KOHaK, Ha mjictoto Ha kohto 
npe3 1891 r. e nocTpoeH BoeHHHjrr KJiyS? (IlaHOB, 2010). 



1 



PAS FCSSTKNTHDM 

B U LGARIE N. 



mil! 

HOiajSO-tZTilTUH]-, HiTV\ tXfrjUCXMIKQ, WIKTSKBUT1JCHE 
IBCTUHl^ aatnat CTLTC1, BTtlTKYHFiW™], HTiiTlTUl- 



d" concTAanir jtbe£u. 



in * iiujiiniKi m mu [tin 



T: TKMPFKT, u. iiitth 



TojiaMaTa H3HeHa/ia b Ta3H 4)OTorpa(J)Ha e OTCBCTBHeTO Ha KaneTO b 
^acHO Ha ITtpBa njiona, icb/ieTO e HHTa/iejiaTa Ha KpenocTra. TaM, Kt/ieTO 



398 



TpaSBa fla ce Bnac/ta KaneTO b oSiiHaHHHa My bh/i, ocbch pe#KH xpacTH, Hma 
ramo. Bt33mo>kho jih CHHMKaTa j\& e HanpaBeHa npe#n 1837 r., ot KoraTO 
pa3niHpeHHeTO Ha GejiorpaflHHinicaTa KpenocT Bene e (baicr. E^Ba jih, BtnpeKH 
ne b Te3H roAHHH BjiaHKH (Blanqui, 1845) e nocemaBaji Eejiorpa/tHHK, a 
(|)OTorpa(j}H5iTa b^b cDpamuia no TOBa BpeMe Bene e HanpaBHJia ntpBirre ch 
CTbnKH. Ta3H Bepcna H3rjieac/ta TBtp/te HenpaBono/toSHa. OSacHemieTO 
HaBapHO e CBBceM npocTO — (hoTorpachtT e pa3ncmaraji etc CHHMKa c jioiiio 
KanecTBO h npn o6pa6oTKaTa h KaneTO npocTO e H3ne3Haao. 

EEJIE)KKH 

1. http://retrobulgaria.com/belogradchik/index.html 

2. http://www.promacedonia.org/bugarash/bella/index.html 

JIHTEPATYPA 

KaHineB, H. & MnxaftjiOB, X. (1917). HaphnmiK no mhpeoecKama cnyoKda na 
0Kejie3Huijume u n-bmeeodumen. Cocbjia: nen. "Hcicpa". 

IlaHOB, K. (2010). EejiorpaflHHK (MHHano h HacToame). Beneu, 1, 171-197. 

Blanqui, A.-J. (1845). Voyage en Bulgarie. Paris: W. Coquebert. 

Bulgarian Ministry of Commerce & Agriculture. (1907). Bulgaria of to-day. 
London: Haxell, Watson & Viney Lt. 

Jirecek, C. (1891). Das furstenthum Bulgarien. Seine Bodengestaltung, 
Nature, Bevolkerung, wirthschaftliche Zustdnde, gestige Cultur, 
Staatsverfassung, Staatsverwaltung und neueste Geschichte. Prag, 
Wienn, Leipzig: F. Tempsky, F. Tempsky, G. Freytag. 



S3 Professor B.V. Toshev, 

University of Sofia, 

1 James Bourchier Blvd., 

1164 Sofia, BULGARIA 

E-Mail: toshev@chem.uni-sofia.bg 



399 



Venets: The Belogradchik Journal for Local History, Cultural Heritage and Folk Studies 

Volume 1, Number 3, 2010 



Appendix 



BEJIOrPAflHHK B H3KYCTBOTO 
(BHOPEJI MBPfl^KHIWH) 




Ta3H KapTHHa, 03arjiaBeHa "KtM Eejiorpa^HHic", e Ha H3BecTHHa 
pyMi>HCKH xy/ioacHHK Bnopeji Mtp^acHHaH [Viorel Marginean] (p. 12 
AeKeMBpn 1933 r.); npe3 1995 - 1996 it. e 6hji mhhhctbp Ha KyjrrypaTa b 
PyMtHHa. KapTHHaTa e H3JioaceHa b HauHOHajiHaTa rajiepna 3a 
nyayiecTpaHHO H3KycTBO b Co(j)Ha. 



400 



ISSN 1314-0426